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In-Text Citations

Avoid the use of footnotes. Insert the sequence (Name year) into the main text for a citation to a literature reference. Name refers to the family name of the author and year refers to the year of publication.

To cite several authors delimit the single authors by commas or 'and', ampersands (&) should not be used. The phrase et al. is valid for 3 or more authors following the first full citation. The year is written in long form [i.e., 1999] and use running lower case letters if you refer to more than one article of an author of the same year [e.g., Jones 1999a, 1999b]. Where more than one reference is used, separate each reference with a semicolon [e.g., Jones 1999a; White and Beckett 1997]. Where a quote from the source document is included in the text, please refer to the page number, as in Jones (1999a; p.125). For quotations over two lines start a separate line (no space, no quotation marks) and indent the quotation 0.5 cm from the margin.


  • ... this special form (Black and Lines 1998b) is very ...
  • ... direct reference from authors Black and Lines (1998a) ...
  • ... more than one article by same author in one year (Keystone et al. 2000c) is used ...
  • ... more than one author (Jones 1999a; White and Beckett 1997)
  • ... and if more than one reference to same author (Iwarsson 1997, 1999)
  • ... and if more than five authors (Steinfeld, Schroeder, Duncan, Faste, Chollet and Bishop 1979) on first occasion and (Steinfeld et al. 1979) on subsequent occasions.

List of references
  • Alphabetical order on surname of first author
  • Hanging paragraph - 0.5 cm

Single author
Woodford, J.R. (2000) The Wollemi Pine. Melbourne: Text Publishing.

Two authors
Prusinkiewick, P. and Lindemayer, A. (1990) The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Bernard, J.M. and Goodyear, R.K. (1992) Fundamental of clinical supervision (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

More than two authors
Steinfeld, E., Schroeder, S., Duncan, J.D, Faste, R., Chollet, D. and Bishop, M. (1979) Access to the built environment. A review of the literature. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Journal articles
  • Always write journal name in full

One author
Odom, A.L. (1995) Secondary and college biology students' misconceptions about diffusion and osmosis. The American Biology Teacher, 57(7).
Bordin, E.S. (1983) A working alliance model of supervision. Counseling Psychologist, 11, 35-42.

Two authors
Jerome, L.W. and Zaylor, C. (2000) Cyperspace: Crating a therapeutic environment for telephealth applications. Professional Psychology: Reserarch and Practice, 31, 478-483.

More than two authors
Cram, W.J., Torn, P.G. and Rose, D.A. (2002) Salt allocation during leaf development and leaf fall in mangroves. Trees, 16, 112-119.

Chapter in book
One author
Pritchett, N. (1999) Effective Question Design. In S. Brown, J. Bull and P. Race (Eds), Computer-Assisted Assessment in Higher Education, London: Kogan Page.
Articles published in conference proceedings
Bain, J.D. and McNaught, C. (1996) Academics' educational conceptions and the design and impact of computer software in higher education. In C. McBeath and R. Atkinson (Eds) The learning superhighway: New World? New Worries? Proceedings of the Third International Interactive Multimedia Symposium. Perth, WA: Promac Conventions, 56-59.
Same author
Single author - earlier publication before later publication
Iwarsson, S. (1997) Functional capacity and physical environmental demand. Exploration of factors influencing everyday activity in the elderly populations. Lund University, Sweden: Doctoral dissertation, Department of Community Health Science.
Iwarsson, S. (1999) The Housing Enabler: An objective tool for assessing accessibility. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62(11), 491-497.
Multiple authors - Order based on alphabetical order of second author
Iwarsson, S. and Isacsson, A. (1996) Development of a novel instrument for occupational therapy assessment of the physical environment in the home - A methodological study on the Enabler. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research. 16, 227-244.
Iwarsson, S. and Slaug, B. (2001) Housing Enabler: An instrument for assessing and analyzing accessibility problems in housing. Navlinge and Staffanstorp, Sweden: Veten and Skapen HB, Slaug Data Management AB.
Web sites
Beckleheimer, J. (1994) How do you cite URLs in a bibliography? [Online] Available: http://www.nrlssc.navy.mil/meta/bibliography.html [1995, December 13].
How to Cite the Internet. [Online] (2002) Available: http://www.artsci.lsu.edu/poli/lis.html [2002, February 6].
Unpublished work
Callan, V. (Unpub.) My ideas about something.

About PDF
Issues of CAL-laborate are available either online or in Portable Document Format (PDF) (better for printing).
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