UniServe Science Biology Table of Contents

9.2 Maintaining a Balance

General and background information Organisms and temperature ranges
Transporting dissolved nutrients and gases Regulating the concentration of gases, water and waste products

General and background information

Download a sample Skills Mapping sheet for Maintaining a Balance (pdf format, 78 KB)

Chemical Eric: Dealing with the Disintegration of Central Control A case study about the Pituitary Gland

NSW HSC Online - syllabus references and list of useful resources

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Organisms and temperature ranges

Preview of Animated Media and Assessment Resources - from Life: The Science of Biology

Introduction to Enzymes - a practical introduction in simple terms to the basic theories of enzymology - from Beginning Biochemistry, Worthington Biochemical Corporation. Also available as a pdf (235 KB)

ANIMAL ORGAN SYSTEMS AND HOMEOSTASIS - good introductory notes from the On-Line Biology Book, Estrella Mountain Community College

Ecoloical Concepts - revision material from S-Cool (material designed for GSCE and A levels, UK)

Ectothermic and endothermic

The Many Dimensions of a Lizard's Ecological Niche - a detailed paper by Eric R. Pianka, from University of Texas Austin

Ectothermic and endothermic Australian animals

Burramys parvus: Mountain Pygmy Possum - from University of Michigan

Blue-tongued Lizards in New South Wales - a fact sheet from Australian Museum Online

A Land of Lizards - Why the Australian deserts are so rich in species of lizards - from University of Texas Austin


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Transporting dissolved nutrients and gases

Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide monitoring

Pulse Oximetry - from World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists - includes Introduction and How does it work?

Principles of Pulse Oximetry Technology: - also History and clinical applications from Oximeter.org

Practical applications of pulse oximetry - from World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists

Blood products and artificial blood

Overview of Blood and Blood Components - health article from Healthline.com

Artifical Cells, Blood Substitutes and Nanomedicine - web page of further links (e.g. Blood Substitutes) - from McGill University

Blood Substitutes - includes advantages, and major approaches in artifical blood production

Blood Substitutes: Recreating the Fluid of Life - article on a viable substitute for human blood - from Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry Magazine

Transporting dissolved gases and nutrients in plants

Supporting Tissues - Vascular Tissues from Botany Online - includes Vascular Tissues, The Xylem, The Evolution of Xylem Elements, The Phloem, Vascular Bundles of Monocotyledons, Vascular Bundles of Dicotyledons, Gymnosperm Wood, Angiosperm Wood and The Spatial Arrangement of Vascular Bundles And The Theory of Steles

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Regulating the concentration of gases, water and waste products


The Excretory System - detailed explanation of Regulation of Extracellular Fluids, Nitorgen Wastes etc. - from Maricopa College - good diagrams

Excretory/Urinary System - from Univesity of Cincinnati - Clermont College, covers Antidiuretic hormone

Water and Electrolyte Balance in Animals - from Prentice Hall - four-chapter summary of topic


The balancing act - from Life and Adaptation to Water, SA Museum - explains the proper balance of water and salt and the role of kidneys (includes comparison on kidneys from a range of organisms)

Vertebrate Kidneys - J. Kimball's Pages - excellent Notes and diagrams - comparative anatomy

What Kids Need to Know about Kidneys - from Kids' Health - printable versions

Your Kidneys and How They Work - from National Institute of Health

The Kidney - from John Kimball's Biology Pages

Kidney Disease and Dialysis

Dialysis - from John Kimball's Biology Pages

Dialysis - an interactive web site - from The Shodor Foundation

Urine concentration

Osmoregulation and Excretion - answers to questions such as How do animals regulate their water intake in different environments? How does the mammalian kidney produce urine? from Saint Michael's College, Colchester

Nitrogen Excretion and Osmotic Regulation - from Marietta College -detailed explanation with diagrms


Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin) - from Colorado State University

Adaptations to dry conditions

Living Health - exhibition from the South Australian Museum (Life and Adaptations to Water)
- needs Quicktime Player select desert or desert refuges. Also Desert Supplementary information (contains notes only).

Macropus robustus (hill wallaroo) - from University of Michigan, brief information on adaptation to dry conditions

NSW HSC Online - compares the waste products of a range of terrestrial and aquatic organisms and explains why these differences occur - from HSC Online (Charles Sturt University)

Adaptations to salty conditions

Mangrove and Saltmarsh: A Virtual excursion to Towra Point in Botany Bay - from School of Biological Sciences, The University of Sydney

Classroom activities

Formula for synthetic urine - scroll to bottom of web page - from REGIONAL TECHNICIANS GROUP

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