UniServe Science Chemistry Table of Contents

9.6 Shipwrecks and Salvage
General information Chemical composition of the ocean Metals and metal alloys
Oxidation and reduction Protection from corrosion Factors affecting corrosion
Effect of bacteria and acidic environment Chemistry and salvage Famous Shipwrecks

General information

HSC Online Shipwrecks and Salvage
http://hsc.csu.edu.au/chemistry/options/shipwrecks/2734/ch967Dec2_03.htm

Resources for the New HSC Syllabus: Shipwrecks and Salvage - talk presented at the Chemistry Teachers Workshop, The University of Sydney, June, 2001, contains course material, experiments and lecture notes
http://www.chem.usyd.edu.au/~kepert_c/notes/shipwrecks.htm

Shipwrecks and Salvage - Lesson Plan from students at Sydney University
http://alex.edfac.usyd.edu.au/methods/science/studentwork/shipwrecks/shipwrecks.htm

Australian National Maritime Museum
http://www.anmm.gov.au/

Schools Program
http://www.anmm.gov.au/schools.htm

Information Sheet - THE VERNON ANCHORS & HMB ENDEAVOUR CANNON
http://www.anmm.gov.au/anchors&cannon.htm

Sheet 16 SHIPWRECKS Corrosion and Artefact Conservation for HSC Chemistry Students
http://www.anmm.gov.au/lib/hscchemistry.htm

Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M - a range of resources on this topic including CONSERVATION RESEARCH LABORATORY, from Texas A&M University
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/

Nautical Archaeology - a brief summary from ANU
Nautical Archaeology

Wreck Detectives - from Best of Discovery Channel
http://www.discoverychannel.co.uk/wreckdetectives/feature1.shtml

Oceanography - web page compiled by Uniserve Science to support Oceanography Option in the Earth and Environmental Science Syllabus
http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/curric/stage6/ees/oceans.html


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Chemical composition of the ocean

Why is the Ocean Salty? - from Palomar College's Oceanography Program - scroll down for summary tables: Constituents of seawater and Comparison with fresh water
http://www.palomar.edu/oceanography/salty_ocean.htm

GEOL 206.3 Seawater Chemistry - from University of Saskatchewan
http://www.usask.ca/geology/classes/geol206/geol206rr2.html

Chemical oceanography - from NOAA Vents Program
http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/chemocean.html

The Salt Industry Web Site - from USA
http://www.saltinstitute.org/3.html

Oxidation-Reduction reactions - from Purdue University
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch19/1_frame.html

Oxidation-Reduction reactions - from University of Hawai'i
http://library.kcc.hawaii.edu/external/chemistry/redox_title.html

Redox reactions - from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/redox/

Electrochemistry demonstrations - from General Chemistry at University of Wisconsin
http://genchem.chem.wisc.edu/demonstrations/Analytical/pages/electrochem/electrochemmain.htm

Electrochemistry Demonstrations - from University of Queensland
http://www.uq.edu.au/_School_Science_Lessons//topic15.html#Topic15H

Galvani, Volta, Davy and Faraday

Luigi Galvani - from Corrosion Doctors - includes links to biographies of other famous scientists
http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/Biographies/GalvaniBio.htm

Alessandro Volta - from The Italian American
http://www.italian-american.com/volta.htm

Count Alessandro Volta - from Energy Quest, California
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/scientists/volta.html

Chemical Achievers: Sir Humphry Davy - from Chgemical Achievers, The Chemical Heritage
http://www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/chemach/eei/hd.html

Heritage: Faraday page - from The Royal Institution of Great Britain
http://www.rigb.org/rimain/heritage/faradaypage.jsp


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Metals and metal alloys

Passivity of Metals - from the Corrosion Doctors
http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/AnodProtect/Passivity.htm

Passivation Layer
http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/Surface/Passivation-layer.htm

Alloy, Metal Terminology - from Metal Mart
http://www.metal-mart.com/Dictionary/dictleta.htm

Galvanic Series of Metals in Sea Water - from Dudley Dix Yacht Design
http://www.dixdesign.com/galvanic.htm

Chemical Composition of alloy steels - from The Encyclopedia of Metallurgy
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Campus/8262/htdocs/steels/indx.html

X80 Grade Steel for RAN Warships - from University of WA
http://www.oil-gas.uwa.edu.au/research/research_groups/crcws/X80_Grade_Steel

Rusting Experiments - from the Corrosion Doctors
http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/Training/HighSchool-rusting.htm

Corrosion and Protection of Metals: Information for the use of Teachers - from National Corrosion Service: Schools Section UK
http://www.npl.co.uk/ncs/schools/experiments01.html


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Oxidation and reduction in electrolytic cells

HSC Chemistry Data Sheets 2004 - from Board of Studies Some Standard Potentials (Page 41)
http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/hsc_exams/hsc2004exams/pdf_doc/chemistry_04.pdf

Topic 15 Electrochemistry, electrochemical cells, electrolytic cells - from University of Queensland, see 15.3.0 onwards
http://www.uq.edu.au/_School_Science_Lessons//topic15.html#Topic15H


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Protection from corrosion

Steel Corrosion - from Corrosion Doctors
http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/MatSelect/corrsteel.htm

SYNERGISTIC PROTECTION AGAINST MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION USING A 100% SOLIDS POLYURETHANE INCORPORATED WITH ANTI-MICROBIAL AGENTS - a technical article by Dr. Shiwei Guan, Madison Chemical Industrial Inc.
http://www.geocities.com:0080/CapeCanaveral/3018/mic.htm


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Factors affecting corrosion

Factors Affecting General Corrosion Rate - a simplified Schematic Diagram of Oxide Corrosion Film on the Surface of a Metal, from Integrated Publishing
http://www.tpub.com/content/doe/h1015v1/css/h1015v1_115.htm

Corrosion Rate - from Integrated Publishing
http://www.tpub.com/doechem1/chem133.htm

Galvanic Corrosion - from Corrosion Club
http://www.corrosion-club.com/galvanic.htm


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Effect of sulfur reducing bacteria and acidic environment

Metal-Eating Bacteria Corrode Pipes in Oil Industry - from Access Excellence
http://www.accessexcellence.org/WN/SU/bactercorrode.html


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Chemistry and salvage

Conservation Research Laboratory - from Texas A&M University
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/napcrl.htm

METHODS OF CONSERVING ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIAL FROM UNDERWATER SITES - from Texas A&M University
http://nautarch.tamu.edu/class/ANTH605/File0.htm

Maritime Archeological Association of New Zealand
http://www.maanz.wellington.net.nz/maanz/about.htm

Shipwreck Conservation - from Wisconsins Historical Society
http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/shipwrecks/learn/conservation.asp

Materials Conservation - from Heritage Victoria
Conservation


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Famous Shipwrecks

Artefacts from the Batavia - from The Western Australian Maritime Museum
http://www.museum.wa.gov.au/collections/maritime/march/artefacts/Batarts.html

HMS Pandora - from the Queensland Museum, in particular the Archaeology
http://www.qm.qld.gov.au/features/pandora/

Historic Shipwrecks of Victoria - from Heritage Victoria
Shipwrecks Web Page

The Academy Of Natural Sciences Probes What's Eating Historic USS Monitor - an article in Science Daily
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/07/050711013610.htm

Preserving an american Icon - from The Mariner's Museum
http://www.monitorcenter.org/preserving/

Degradation and Conservation of Marine Metal findings - .pdf file, from Malta Centre for Restoration
http://www.ifac.cnr.it/corsoArcheo/abstract/Degrigny.pdf


The Titanic

Last Mysteries of the Titanic - from Discovery Channel
http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/titanic/titanic.html

Chemical researh on Titanic - from US National Chemistry Week
http://www.cheminst.ca/ncw/articles/1994_titanic_e.html

Why did the metal objects in the Titanic corrode very slowly? - from FAQ on Redox Reactions at General Chemistry Online!
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/redox/faq/titanic.shtml

Analysis of Steel from The Titanic - About.com
http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C10/C10Links/chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/aa022800a.htm

Testing shows Titanic Steel was Brittle - from Science Daily
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/12/971227000141.htm

Corrosion of the Sunken Titanic - from Corrosion Doctors
http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/Landmarks/titan-corrosion.htm

What's Eating the Titanic? - from Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
http://octopus.gma.org/space1/titanic.html

The Royal Mail Ship Titanic: Did a Metallurgical Failure Cause a Night to Remember? - an article in JOM: The Member Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/9801/Felkins-9801.html


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