UniServe Science Chemistry Table of Contents

8.4 Water

General information State Molecular Structure
Solvent Salts Heat Capacity

General information

NSW EPA BeachWatch Bulletin - has daily forecast temperatures, water temperature readings and ocean pollution information, from NSW Environment Protection Authority

The Globe Program - International program in which schools and communities provide data on physical factors within the environment.

Ensuring the Future - from Sydney Water - a number of resources (pdf format) designed for primary and secondary school, including an comprehensive unit for the Earth and Environmental Science Syllabus

The Chemistry of Water - tutorial within The Biology Project from The University of Arizona

OnLocation: Turning Passive Learners into Principal Investigators - see Aboard Alvin 2000, Aboard Alvin 1999, Antartic Ice Fish (background activities leads to NASA Antarctica which has information on Salt Concentation and Changes in Antarctic Ice), and Global Climate Change

Volunteer Estuary Monitoring - a Methods Manual, from Environmental Protection Agency

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Water Science for Schools - from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)

Contrasting Water with Hydrogen Peroxide - lab exercise to compare water and hydrogen peroxide, from Maths/Science Nucleus

The Chemistry of Water - from The Biology Project, The University of Arizona

Snow Crystals: Physical Properties of Ice - from California Institute of Technology

The Water Cycle - from US Geological Survey

Classroom Activity: Antifreeze and the freezing point of water - from The Science Center

The Colligative Properties of Solutions - from Utah State Office of Education

Lowering the Freezing Point of Water Using Salt - experiment/demonstration, from The University of Maryland Physics Lecture-Demonstration Facility

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) News

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Molecular Structure

Molecular World of Reactions in Water video series - need to register (free)
Available from Video Education Australasia

  1. Water - A Molecular Substance
    Portrays the structures and changes of state of water. Computer generated animations show ice melting, water evaporating and water boiling, all at the molecular level. The visual resource is supported with an extensive teacher's guide and carefully designed student worksheets.
  2. Dissolving, Precipitation & Complexation
  3. Ionic Equilibrium, Acid/Base & Oxidation/Reduction

Sticky Water - explains water's electrical attraction, surface tension etc.; from The Exploratorium

Water structure and behavior - scientific site concerned with the structure, behaviour and properties of water and hydration, from London South bank University

Lewis Structures Tutorial - from Louisiana State University

Exploring relationships among surface chemistry, interfacial energetics, and the biological response to materials - from E. A. Vogler, best viewed using Internet Explorer

Walking On Water: Water Striders and Surface Tension - sample student laboratory exercise, from Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute

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Aquatic Chemistry - from New Jersey Institute of Technology

Diffusion, Osmosis, and Cell Membranes - from The University of Arizona

Notes on Ionic Bonding - from Virginia Tech

Chemical Bonding: A sourcebook module for teachers - from Oklahoma State University

Electronegativity and Polar Bonds - from a teacher at Roanoke Valley Governor's School

Regents Prep: Chemistry Multiple-Choice Questions
Bonding: 13 Questions with feedback and further explanations

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Reference Tables for Chemistry (10 pages) - from NY State Regents website: see page 2 for Solubility data, downloadable as a pdf file (77 KB)

Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry - page with useful formulas, from Pennsylvania State University

Stoichiometry - from The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

The Six Types of Chemical Reaction - from Mr Guch, Chemistry Tutors

Using Solubility Rules - laboratory Procedure, from University of Nebraska

Six Solutions - identify an unkown solution - from University of Nebraska

Solubility of Solutes and Aqueous Solutions - from Louisiana State University

Heavy metals - Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, from Lennitech

Heavy Metals in Sydney Harbour - from the ABC, Radio National

Heavy Metal Pollution - from Wiley Interscience

Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals - from National Academies Press

NSW Dept of Environment, Climate Change and Water

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Heat Capacity

Chemical Reactions - from Chemistry and You

What factors influence the rate of a chemical reaction? - from Kingsbury High School USA

Understanding water - from Water on the Web

Water Quality and Temperature - from Science Junction

Thermal Enhancement - from Goulburn Valley Fly Fishing Centre

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