UniServe Science Earth and Environmental Science Table of Contents

9.4 Caring for the Country
Soil formation, erosion and conservation Salinity of soils and water Effect of excessive use of pesticides
Management of water Sewage treatment Effect of hydrocarbons on the atmosphere and hydrosphere
International strategies to protect the atmosphere and hydrosphere Depletion of the ozone layer Rehabilitation of contaminated sites

General and background information

Earth and Environmental Science: Caring for the Country - from HSC Online, Charles Sturt University
http://hsc.csu.edu.au/earth_environmental/core/caring/

The Science of the Aerosols we breathe- webcast of presentation by Prof Lidia Morawska at the 2005 International Science School (Waves of the Future), The University of Sydney, available for modem or broadband
http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/foundation/Outreach/ISS/webcast.htm

State of the Environment Report 2006 - from NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, covers Atmosphere, Land, Water, Biodiversity and Towards Environmental Sustainability
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/soe/soe2006/

State of the Environment Report 2003 - from NSW Environment Protection Authority, covers Atmosphere, Land, Water, Biodiversity and Towards Environmental Sustainability
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/soe/soe2003/

State of the Environment Report 2000 - from NSW Environment Protection Authority, covers Atmosphere, Land, Water, Biodiversity and Towards Environmental Sustainability
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/soe/soe2000/

State of the Environment Report 1997 - from NSW Environment Protection Authority, covers Atmosphere, Land, Water, Biodiversity and Towards Sustainability
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/soe/97/

State of the Environment Report 1995 - from NSW Environment Protection Authority, covers Atmosphere, Land, Water, Biodiversity and Towards Sustainability
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/soe/95/

Natural Resources and Climate - from Natural Resources and Climate, NSW Department of Agriculture, topics include Soils, Salinity, water Quality, Land Use Planning, Irrigation, Agroforestry and Weather and Climate
http://www.agric.nsw.gov.au/reader/16

Soil formation, erosion and conservation

ROYAL NATIONAL PARK INFORMATION - including geology and soil formation, from the Environmental Education Centre, Royal National Park
http://www.royalnatpk-e.schools.nsw.edu.au/royal.html

Australian Soil Poster - from Australian Collaborative Land Evaluation Program and CSIRO, download an A4 pdf or order from CSIRO Publishing
http://www.clw.csiro.au/aclep/asc/asc.htm#poster

The Australian Soil Classification - An Interactive Key - trial version can be downloaded from Australian Collaborative Land Evaluation Program and CSIRO
http://www.clw.csiro.au/aclep/asc/asc.htm#interactive

Environment: Special Article - The Soils of Australia (Year Book Australia, 1966) - from Australian Bureau of Statistics
http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/94713ad445ff1425ca25682000192af2/1ca94df590adff7fca2569f300250a31!OpenDocument

Soils of the Australian Alps - from Australian Alps national parks
http://www.australianalps.deh.gov.au/publications/edukit/soils.html

Soils from Volcanoes - from The Volcano Information Center, University of California at Santa Barbara
http://volcanology.geol.ucsb.edu/soil.htm

Soils and Their Conservation - from The University of Adelaide
http://www.adelaide.edu.au/agcareers/Content/TeacherResources/WhatareSoils/Index.html

Soils in New South Wales - from NSW Department of Natural Resources
http://www.dnr.nsw.gov.au/soils/soil_landscapes.shtml

The World of Soil
http://soil.hostweb.org.uk/

The Pedosphere and its Dynamics - online textbook covering topics such as What is Soil?, Formation of Soil
http://www.pedosphere.com/textbook.html

Sodicity - a dirty word in Australia - from NOVA, Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/035/035key.htm

Soil Condition: Soil Properties - Soil erosion by water - from Natural Resource Management
http://www.nrm.gov.au/monitoring/indicators/soil/water.html


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Salinity of soils and water

Agriculture and salinity in NSW - from Department of Primary Industries
http://www.ricecrc.org/reader/salinity/dpi-salinity.htm

The Dry Land Salinity Program
http://www.ndsp.gov.au/

Salinity Solutions - from NSW Department of Natural Resources
http://www.dnr.nsw.gov.au/salinity/government/govt-docs.htm

Monitoring the white death - soil salinity - from NOVA, Australian Academy of Sciences
http://www.science.org.au/nova/032/032key.htm

Australia's Salinity Problem - from NATIONAL ACTION PLAN for Salinity and Water Quality
http://www.napswq.gov.au/publications/salinity.html

Publications and Tools - from National Dryland Salinity Program, in particular the Fact sheets and Brochures and posters
http://www.ndsp.gov.au/Publications_and_Tools/index.aspx

Tricked plants need half the water - from ABC Science environment news
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/enviro/EnviroRepublish_209933.htm

Australia could run dry - from ABC Science environment news
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/enviro/EnviroRepublish_203348.htm

Salinity threatens extinctions in Western Australia - from ABC Science environment news
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/enviro/EnviroRepublish_175989.htm


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Effect of excessive use of pesticides

Pesticides

Pesticide Education Resources - from University of Nebraska including What is a Pesticide?
http://www.ianr.unl.edu/ianr/pat/ephome.htm

What are pesticides? - from NSW Environment Protection Authority
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/envirom/pestwhtr.htm

How pesticides work - from NSW Environment Protection Authority
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/envirom/pesthwwrk.htm

Lecture 24: Pesticides - from The Biology Learning Center
http://members.aol.com/Tenaya21/Ecology/LectureNotes/lec24.html

Pesticides Act 1999: your responsibilities - from NSW Environment Protection Authority
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/envirom/pestact.htm

Handling pesticide wastes - a household guide - from NSW Environment Protection Authority
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/envirom/wastepest.htm

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification

Bioaccumulation & Biomagnification - from Biology at Marietta College
http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/102/2bioma95.html

Biomagnification of Contaminants - from McGill University, Canada
http://www.cine.mcgill.ca/wildlife1.htm

BIOACCUMULATION - from Oregon State University, USA
http://ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/tibs/bioaccum.htm

3. DDT and biological concentration - in The bitter-sweet taste of toxic substance from NOVA, Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/036/036box03.htm

DDT (General Fact Sheet) - from National Pesticide Telecommunication Network
http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/ddtgen.pdf

Pesticide Fact Sheets - from National Pesticide Telecommunication Network
http://npic.orst.edu/npicfact.htm

Alternative management practices that do not require pesticides

What is biological control? - links for this topic within the Introduced Species and the Australian Environment option from UniServe Science
http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/curric/stage6/ees/introsp.html#biolcontrol

Organic gardening - insect pest & disease control - from Queensland Department of Primary Industries
http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/business/8739.html

Integrated pest management - the good, the bad and the genetically modified - from NOVA, Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/041/041print.htm

NATURAL PEST CONTROL: Attracting Beneficial Insects to Your Garden - from Grinning Planet
http://www.grinningplanet.com/2005/04-26/beneficial-insect-natural-pest-control-article.htm

Lecture 25: Integrated Pest Management - from The Biology Education Center
http://members.aol.com/Tenaya21/Ecology/LectureNotes/lec25.html

Organic farming - an AgNotes from NSW Department of Agriculture outlining Integrated Pest and Disease Management
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/farm/organic

Pesticide Use Reduction - brief description of alternative practices of pest management, from Environmental Advocates of New York
http://www.eany.org/issues/pesticide.html

Publications - and Fact Sheets covering a range of topics from basic information on pesticides to alternatives for home, garden and farm use, from the Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Orgeon
http://www.pesticide.org/factsheets.html

What are Biopesticides - Office of Pesticide Program, United States Environmental Protection Agency
http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/whatarebiopesticides.htm

Applications for food and agriculture - genetically modified pest resistance and case studies in cotton, canola and soy, from Biotechnology Australia
http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/foodag/foodandag.cfm

Biotechnology and Weed Management - a paper delivered at Australian Agronomy Conference, from The University of Adelaide
http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2001/plenery/6/roush.htm

Designer Seeds - from Beyond Discovery, The National Academy of Sciences
http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.article.asp?a=167


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Management of water

For Schools - resources from Sydney Water, includes sewage treatment, waste water and stormwater
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/EnsuringTheFuture/WaterSchool/

CSIRO Urban Water - from CSIRO Built Environment Innovation & Construction Technology
http://www.csiro.au/csiro/channel/ich37.html

Stormwater - from NSW Environmental Protection Authority
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/stormwater/

Our Water Our Future - from Department of Sustainability and the Environment
http://www.nre.vic.gov.au/ourwater/education/Senior/WaterFacts/Frontpage.htm

Subsurface Contamination of Groundwater - a practical activity from Access Excellence
http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/WWC/1991/groundwater.html

Renewable Groundwater? - from the Lab, ABC Science Online
http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/groundwater/default.htm

The water down under - from NOVA, Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/100/100key.htm

Irrigation, Surfacewater and Groundwater - from Goulburn Murray Water
http://www.g-mwater.com.au/browse.asp?ContainerID=rural_water_services

Storm water management - from Sydney Water
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsAndOperations/StormwaterManagement/

When is a Bore a Water Bore - groundwater note from Department of Sustainability and the Environment
http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/CA256F310024B628/0/8FAB146713578BC8CA256FF20021938A/$File/GWNOTE18.pdf

Bore Water: using bore water safely - from SA Department of Health
http://www.dh.sa.gov.au/pehs/PDF-files/bore-water-web-06.pdf

Environmental Flows - from Sydney Catchment Authority
http://www.sca.nsw.gov.au/dams/flows.html

Australian water Association
http://www.awa.asn.au/

Water - from NSW Environmental Protection Authority
http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/water/index.htm


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Sewage treatment

Wastewater Treatment Plants - from Sydney Water
http://www.sydneywater.com.au/OurSystemsAndOperations/WastewaterTreatmentPlants/

Wastewater and Sewage - from NSW Health
http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/public-health/ehb/wastewater/index.html

Sewage Treatment - from South East Water, Victoria
http://www.southeastwater.com.au/sewl/upload/document/flush_it.pdf

Waste Water Treatment - a Fact Sheet from Hunter Water
http://www.hunterwater.com.au/factsheet.asp?id=5

Wastewater - from Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania
http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/LBUN-4YP6U3?open

Application of Duckweed in Treating Municipal Wastewater - from Foundation of Water Research
http://www.fwr.org/wsaa/wsaa151.htm


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Effect of hydrocarbons on the atmosphere and hydrosphere

UNIT 16 FATE OF THE EARTH: THE IMPACT OF MAN - from Planet Earth and the New Geosciences, Adam Mickiewicz University http://geoinfo.amu.edu.pl/wpk/pe/a/harbbook/c_xvi/chap16.html

Acid Rain

Environmental Biology - Acid Rain and Soil Erosion - from Biology at Marietta College
http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/102/arain.html

Acid rain - from Environment Canada
http://www.ec.gc.ca/acidrain/

Acid Rain - from US Environment Protection Agency
http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/acidrain/

The Chemistry of Acid Rain - from Aus-E-Tute
http://www.ausetute.com.au/acidrain.html

Acid Rain - why it is a concern?

- from Environment Protection Authority, South Australia
http://www.epa.sa.gov.au/pdfs/info_acidrain.pdf
Greenhouse Gases

1.3 The enhanced greenhouse effect - from State of the Environment, NSW, 1997
http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/soe/97/ch1/5.htm

Worldmapper - a collection of world maps, where territories are re-sized on each map according to the subject of interest, e.g. carbon damage and ecological footprint
http://www.worldmapper.org/

Greenhouse Gases and Society - from University of Michigan
http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/greenhouse.htm

What Are Greenhouse Gases? - from Energy Information Administration
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggccebro/chapter1.html

Greenhouse Effect

Personal Greenhouse Gas Calculator - from Environmental Protection Agency, USA
http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ResourceCenterToolsGHGCalculator.html

Carbon currency - the credits and debits of carbon emissions trading from NOVA, Australia Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/054/054key.htm

Enhanced greenhouse effect - a hot international topic - from NOVA, Australia Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/016/016key.htm

Global Warming - a NASA fact sheet in pdf
http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/ftp_docs/Global_Warming.pdf

CLIMATE CHANGE: 50 YEARS PAST AND POSSIBLE FUTURES - from Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA
http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/topstory/20020820climate50.html

Climate Change - from US Environment Protection Agency
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/index.html

Climate Change - a Hot Topic from New Scientist
http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/climate/

Global Climate Change - activities produced for NASA Classroom of the Future
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/climate/GCmain.html

Fire on Earth - activities produced for NASA Classroom of the Future
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/carbon/earthfire.html

Vehicle emissions

Motor vehicle emissions - from EPA, Victoria
http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/air/vehicles/default.asp

Motor Vehicle Environment Committee: the strategy Part 1 - from National Road Transport Commission, Australia
http://www.ephc.gov.au/pdf/mvec/mvec_stratpln_pt1.pdf

Motor Vehicle Environment Committee: the environmental context Part 2 - from National Road Transport Commission, Australia
http://www.ephc.gov.au/pdf/mvec/mvec_stratpln_pt2.pdf

Greenhouse gas emissions calculator - from Australian Greenhouse Office
http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/fuelguide/environment.html

The Future of the Motor Car - presenation by CSIRO at the Emerging Transport Technology Conference and Greenfleet
http://www.greenfleet.com.au/uploads/pdfs/2005%20ETTC%20Pres%20D%20Lamb.pdf

Greenfleet - an Australian organisation providing a simple way to reduce your car's impact on the environment, includes Greenhouse Calculator
http://www.greenfleet.com.au/index.asp

Global Warming and Climate Change

How Warm is Too warm? Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change by Michael Oppenheimer - from Ecoscience, International Science School 2007, The University of Sydney
http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/foundation/Outreach/ISS/book/ecoscience_part9.pdf

The Warming Planet by Graeme Pearman - from Ecoscience, International Science School 2007, The University of Sydney
http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/foundation/Outreach/ISS/book/ecoscience_part10.pdf

GLOBAL WARMING: Early Warning Signs - interactive map with indicators of climate change
http://www.climatehotmap.org/

Climate Change - from Environmental Agency, USA
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/

Global Warming and Climate Change - from Carnegie Mellon University
http://www.gcrio.org/gwcc/

Information Sheets - including Causes of climate change from Climatic Research Unit, University of east Anglia
http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/info/

Chlorofluorocarbons

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - from Aus-E-Tute
http://www.ausetute.com.au/cfcozone.html

How ozone is destroyed by CFCs - animation from Bureau of Meteorology
http://www.bom.gov.au/lam/Students_Teachers/ozanim/ozoanim.shtml

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - from Environmental Protection Agency, USA
http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/airairpochlorofluorocarbonscfcs.html

Chlorofluorocarbons and Ozone Depletion - from Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University
http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/TG/OZ/cfcozn.html

Chlorofluorocarbons and the incredible shrinking ozone - from Food and Drug Authority
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-6245243.html

Australian chlorofluorocarbon management strategy - from Department of the Environment and Water Resources
http://www.environment.gov.au/atmosphere/ozone/publications/cfcs/intro.html


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International strategies to protect the atmosphere and hydrosphere

Ozone - a NASA Fact Sheet in pdf
http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/ftp_docs/Ozone_Fact_Sheet.pdf

UV Menace - activities produced for NASA Classroom of the Future
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/ozone/uvmenace.html

The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer - from Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University
http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/TG/PI/POLICY/montpro.html

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer - from Department of the Environment and Water Resources
http://www.environment.gov.au/atmosphere/ozone/legislation/montp.html

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer - from The Ozone Hole
http://www.theozonehole.com/montreal.htm

Kyoto Protocol - from Australian Greenhouse Office
http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/international/kyoto/

Kyoto Protocol - from Climate Action Network Australia
http://www.cana.net.au/index.php?site_var=343

Kyoto Protocol - from Environment Canada
http://www.ec.gc.ca/climate/kyoto-e.html


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Depletion of the ozone layer

Earth's sunscreen - the ozone layer - an educational activity from the Australian Academy of Science
http://science.org.au/nova/004/004key.htm

Ozone Layer - an excellent resource on ozone and ozone depletion from U.S.Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
http://www.research.noaa.gov/climate/t_ozonelayer.html

Ozone - an excellent resource on ozone and ozone depletion from U.S.Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
http://www.oar.noaa.gov/k12/html/ozone2.html

Atmospheric Ozone - from the Gateway Antarctica, Centre for Antarctic Studies and Research, University of Canterbury.
http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/ozone.html

The Antarctic Ozone Hole from United States Environmental Protection Agency includes animations and composite images.
http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/hole/

Ozone Science: The Facts Behind the Phaseout - also from United States Environmental Protection Agency.
http://www.epa.gov/docs/ozone/science/sc_fact.html

The Ozone Hole Tour from the Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Cambridge
http://www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/

The Ozone Depletion Phenomenon - from Beyond Discovery, the National Academy of Sciences
http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.article.asp?a=73


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Rehabilitation of contaminated sites

Golden Gecko Awards - from Department of Inductry and Resources, WA
http://www.doir.wa.gov.au/goldengecko/default_previous.asp

Waste dumps

The Pangea Proposal FOR AN INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR WASTE DUMP IN OUTBACK WESTERN AUSTRALIA - from Anti-Nuclear Alliance of Western Australia
http://www.anawa.org.au/waste/pangea.html

The Science and Politics of the Proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Dump at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA - from Nuclear Information and Resources Service
http://www.nirs.org/factsheets/yuccaitaly.htm

Nuclear Waste - from Wilderness Society
http://www.nuclear.wilderness.org.au/articles/4-problems-with-the-nuclear-fuel-cycle/v-waste-repositories

Recycling

Environmental guidelines for waste - from Environmental Protection Authority, NSW
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/waste/envguidlns/index.htm

Waste - from Environmental Protection Authority, NSW
http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/waste/index.htm

Rehabilitation

From Exploration to Rehabilitation: the Life of a Gold Mine - PowerPoint Presenation in pdf from Department of Inductry and Resources, WA
http://www.doir.wa.gov.au/documents/gswa/LOAM_5_Rehabilitation.CV.pdf

Best Practice Environmental Management in Mining - List of Booklets - from Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources
http://www.industry.gov.au/content/itrinternet/cmscontent.cfm?objectID=BF645BCB-964A-B247-A9E94E25110BDA2E

Virtual Mine Tours - from NSW Minerals Council
http://www.nswmin.com.au/campus/minerals_classroom/virtual_tours

Blayney Copper Mine Rehabilitation - from NSW Minerals Council
http://www.nswmin.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/6577/Blayney_Copper_Mine_Rehabilitation_Case_Study.pdf

Mine Rehabilitation, Mt Owen Mine - from NSW Minerals Council
http://www.nswmin.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/6578/Xstrata_Rehabilitation_Case_Study.pdf

Worsley and the Environment - from Worsley Alumina
http://worsley.geo.net.au/pages/environment_overview.php4

Rehabilitation of uranium mines - from Environment Australia
http://www.ea.gov.au/ssd/uranium-mining/research/rehabilitation/

Overview - Mining and the Environment - from NSW Department of Primary Industries: Minerals
http://www.minerals.nsw.gov.au/environment/Overview


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