UniServe Science Earth and Environmental Science Table of Contents

9.3 Environments Through Time

Life in the Archaean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic Importance of the ozone layer The Cambrian event
The theory of evolution and moving on land A fossil site - diversity and numbers Past extinctions and mass extinctions

 

Environments Through Time - from HSC Online, Charle Sturt University and Department of Education

Lecture Notes for Geology 105: History of Life. These are lecture outlines with some useful facts on topics such as Relative Time, Extinction, The Cambrian Explosion, The Invasion of Land, The Permo-Triassic Extinctions and Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinctions.

The Virtual Fossil Museum

Web Geological Time Machine- from the Museum of Paleontology, University of California Berkeley includes Cambrian explosion and extinctions.

Down to Earth Series: rich science-based interactive educational resources for Secondary students utilising the Australian minerals industry as a context for self directed learning.

Prehistoric Life - from Museum Victoria including What is a fossil?, Victoria's fossils and Australia's megafauna

Evolution and The Fossil Records - a 36 page pdf file published by the American Geological Institute and the Paleontological Society (pdf 1.02MB)

The Earth as a Planet - from Federation of American Scientists


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Life in the Archaean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic

Geological Time Line

Geologic Time Line - from Fossil-Facts-and-Finds

Earth Science Lesson Plans On Geologic Time - from Fossil-Facts-and-Finds

Stromatolites

Stromatolites - from Department ofMines adn Petroleum, WA

Hamelin Pool Marine Nature Reserve - one of only two places in the world with living marine stromatolites, from Department of Environment and Conservation, WA

The Wonderful World of Stromatolites - from Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum

Stromatolite Fossils in the Hakatai Shale - a virtual field trip in Grand Canyon National Park

Banded Iron Formation

Banded Iron Formation - from University of Oregon

Banded Iron Formation - Western Australia description and images from Turnstone Geological Services

Fossil Formation

HOW FOSSILS FORM - from Enchanted Learning
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/dinofossils/Fossilhow.html

Earliest evidence of life

Life on Earth suddenly a billion years older - a report from News in Science, the lab, ABC Online
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s62487.htm

 

Australia fossil to help in search for life on Mars - from CNN
http://www.cnn.com/TECH/space/9909/03/space.fossil/index.html

THE EARLIEST LIFE - from University of Munster
http://www.uni-muenster.de/GeoPalaeontologie/Palaeo/Palbot/seite1.html

Introduction to the Cyanobacteria - from Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanointro.html

Cyanobacteria: Fossil Record - from Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanofr.html


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Importance of the ozone layer

Chemistry Now - Chemistry of the atmosphere - a 5 page leaflet on this topic from the ChemSoc (Chemical Society), download in pdf format
http://www.chemsoc.org/networks/learnnet/chemnow_atmos.htm

Introduction to Ozone - from LEARN: Atmospheric Science Explorers (LEARN)
http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_5_1.htm

Stratospheric Oxygen - online textbook from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/SEES/ozone/oz_class.htm

TWENTY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE OZONE LAYER - pdf file from World Meteorological Organisation
http://www.wmo.ch/web/arep/reports/ozone_2002/11_q&as.pdf

Atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time - from the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/96/20/10955

Phanerozoic

The Phanerozoic Eon: The Eon of Multicelluar Life - from PALAEOS: The Trace of Life on Earth
http://www.palaeos.com/Timescale/Phanerozoic.htm

Geological Time Machine - from Museum of Paleontology, University of California Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/help/timeform.html

Geological Time Scale - from Museum of Victoria
http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/prehistoric/what/geotime.html

Geological time and the age of rocks - pdf file, 2 pages, from Museum Victoria
http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/infosheets/10134.pdf

Geological Time Scale - 1 page, from Australian Museum, shows major extinctions
http://amonline.net.au/geoscience/pdf/geo_time_scale.pdf


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The Cambrian event

Ediacara

The Cambrian Explosion - from University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Cambrian/Index.html

The Cambrian Explosion - from Evolution Library, PBS Online
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/l_034_02.html

Time Lords Announce a new Period in the Calender of Earth History -ftrom SA Museum, The Ediacaran Period is the first new rung in the ladder of geological time periods to be adopted in 120 years, and the first to be based on rocks in the Southern Hemisphere.
http://www.samuseum.sa.gov.au/page/default.asp?site=1&id=583&fragPage=1

The 'New' Ediacaran Period - from Geoscience Australia
http://www.ga.gov.au/ausgeonews/ausgeonews200512/timescales.jsp

You say Ediacaran, I say Vendian - from ABC web site
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/enviro/EnviroRepublish_1112450.htm

Fossils from forgotten time amaze - from BBC, UK
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/science/nature/3898605.stm

Hot debate over earliest vertebrate claim - from ABC Science News
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/2003/984724.htm

Ediacaran images - black and white diagrams from The Society for the Study of the Origin and Evolution of Life, Japan
http://www.origin-life.gr.jp/3204/3204191/fig1.jpg

Reconstruction Ediacaran environment - colour image, source unknown
http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Paleontology/Paleozoology/Precambrian/ediacaran.gif

Reconstruction Ediacaran environment - colour image, from The Palaeobiology and Biodiversity Research Group, University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Taph/Report2/Ediacaran.gif

Ediacara Hills, Australia - from Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vendian/ediacara.html

The Ediacaran Assemblage - from a personal NZ website
http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/paleontology/Ediacara.html

The Cambrian Explosion

9.3 Environments through time: 3.The Cambrian event - from HSC Online, Charles Sturt University
http://hsc.csu.edu.au/earth_environmental/core/time/9_3_3/933net.html

The Quickening: Beginning of Animal Life on Earth - from Royal Society of NSW.
Abstract and Notes of a talk by Professor Patricia Vickers-Rich, Monash
http://nsw.royalsoc.org.au/talks_2005/talk_Sep2005.html

Cambrian Explosion and Population Growth from University of Miami, Department of Biology
http://www.bio.miami.edu/tom/bil160/bil160goods/15_cambrian.html

Biota of the Burgess Shale - black and white reconstruction of environment
http://www.palaeos.com/Paleozoic/Cambrian/Images/burgess_community.gif

Burgess Shale fossils - a locality in British Columbia, Canada with a exceptional collection of Cambrian fossils, from University of Calgary
http://www.geo.ucalgary.ca/~macrae/Burgess_Shale/

The Burgess Shale : A Hidden Treasure In The Canadian Rockies - from The Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum
http://park.org/Canada/Museum/burgessshale/titlen.html

The Burgess Shale - from University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Lagerstatten/Burgess/index.html

The Cambrian Explosion: Biology's Big Bang - from Cascadia Community College
http://www.cascadia.ctc.edu/facultyweb/instructors/jvanleer/camb%20expl/the_cambrian_explosion.htm

The Cambrian Explosion - from the University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Cambrian/Index.html

The Cambrian Explosion - from The Virtual Fossil Museum
http://www.fossilmuseum.net/Paleobiology/CambrianExplosion.htm

The Dawn of Animal Life - from Miller Museum of Geology, Queen's University, Canada
http://geol.queensu.ca/museum/exhibits/dawnex.html

Relative and Absolute Dating

Dating Techniques - MSU EMuseum, Minnesota State University
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology/dating/

Virtual dating - from Geology Labs On-line
http://www.sciencecourseware.org/VirtualDating/

WHO'S ON FIRST? A RELATIVE DATING ACTIVITY - a classroom activity (student and teacher versions provided)from Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/BarBar.html

LEARNING FROM THE FOSSIL RECORD - from the Museum of Paleontology, University of California Berkerley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/

Determining the age of rocks and fossils - from Victorian Museum
http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/prehistoric/what/fossilage.html


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The theory of evolution and moving on land

Terrestrialization - from the Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum
http://hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca/terrestrialization/

Historical Perspective, Darwin and Evolution - from University of Miami, Department of Biology
http://www.bio.miami.edu/tom/bil160/bil160goods/03_darwin.html

Plants onto land - The algae through the gymnosperms. - from University of Miami, Department of Biology
http://www.bio.miami.edu/tom/bil160/bil160goods/12_toland.html

Vertebrate Evolution II: Life on land vs. life in the water - from University of Miami, Department of Biology
http://www.bio.miami.edu/tom/bil160/bil160goods/20_verts2.html


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A fossil site - diversity and numbers

Fossil Sites of Australia - from Australian Museum Online
http://www.amonline.net.au/fossil_sites/

Koonwarra: A Famous Victorian Fossil Field - from Museum Victoria
http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/prehistoric/fossils/koonwarra.html

Riversleigh - from Australian Museum Online
http://www.amonline.net.au/fossil_sites/riversleigh.htm

Riversleigh - from ABC
http://www.abc.net.au/science/ausbeasts/sites/riversleigh.htm

Fauna and Flora found at the Riversleigh Sites - from University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Lagerstatten/Rivers/riversleigh3.html

Naracoorte Caves World Heritage Area - from National Parks, South Australia
http://www.parks.sa.gov.au/naracoorte/about/index.htm#fossils

NARACOORTE CAVES, FOSSIL FACTS AND THEORIES. - a pdf file covering the fossils fact at Naracoorte Caves, SA
http://www.parks.sa.gov.au/publish/groups/public/@parks/@uppersoutheast/documents/all/005605.pdf

Wonambi Fossil Centre - A Virtual Tour - from National Parks, South Australia
http://www.parks.sa.gov.au/naracoorte/wonambi/index.htm

 

Localities of the Vendian: Ediacara Hills, Australia from the Museum of Paleonotology, University of California, Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vendian/ediacara.html

Ediacara Assemblage - from University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Lagerstatten/Ediacara/title.htm

The Gogo Formation - from University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Lagerstatten/Gogo/index.html

Mazon Creek Fossils - from Illinois State Museum - contains plant and animal fossils dated at 300 million years old
http://www.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/mazon_creek/

Burgess Shale fossils - a locality in British Columbia, Canada with a exceptional collection of Cambrian fossils, from University of Calgary
http://www.geo.ucalgary.ca/~macrae/Burgess_Shale/

Jurassic Cliffs - on the coast of west Dorset, UK, by an amateur palaeontologist
http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~gcaselton/fossil/fossil.html

Jurassic Field Trip Guide - from University of Southampton
http://www.soton.ac.uk/~imw/bridport.htm

The Solnhofen Limestone of Germany - famous Jurassic fossil locality - from the University of California, Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mesozoic/jurassic/solnhofen.html

The Solnhofen Lithographic Limestone - from University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Lagerstatten/solnhofen/index.html


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Past extinctions and mass extinctions

Extinctions - Past and Present by Barry Brook - from Ecoscience, International Science School 2007, The University of Sydney
http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/foundation/Outreach/ISS/book/ecoscience_part2.pdf

Australia's Megafauna - a WebQuest produced by UniServe Science on the Australia's megafauna and possible causes for its extinction
http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/quests/mgfauna.html

Mass Extinctions Of The Phanerozoic Menu - from Canada Musuem
http://park.org/Canada/Museum/extinction/extincmenu.html

The Permo-Triassic extinction - from University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Permian/intro.html

GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History - from University of Marylands, see mainly December lectures on Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction
http://www.geol.umd.edu/~tholtz/G104/104Syl.htm

The Extinction Files - from BBC Education
http://www.ecology.com/archived-links/cambrian-extinction/index.html

Dinosaur Extinction - from Enchanted Learning Software
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/extinction/

The Asteroid Impact vs. Volcano-Greenhouse Dinosaur Extinction Debate - by Dewey McLean, Virginia Tech
http://filebox.vt.edu/artsci/geology/mclean/Dinosaur_Volcano_Extinction/

THE K-T EXTINCTION - from Museum of Paleontology, University of California
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/events/cowen1b.html

The K-T Event - from University of Bristol
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/communication/KT.html

Ice Age Mammals and their Extinction - from Museum Victoria
http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/prehistoric/mammals/

Mystery surrounds the death of Australia's megafauna - a news story from Planet Ark
http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/12091/story.htm

Dinosaur Mass Extinction - from Museum Victoria
http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/prehistoric/dinosaurs/extinction.html

Extinctions: Cycles of Life and Death Through Time - from the Hooper Virtual Paleontological Museum
http://hannover.park.org/Canada/Museum/extinction/homepg.html

Environmental and Biological Implications of an Asteroid Impact: A Look at the K/T Boundary - from the Hooper Virtual Paleontological Museum
http://hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca/impacts/index.htm

Extinction - from University of Miami, Department of Biology
http://www.bio.miami.edu/tom/bil160/bil160goods/10_extinct.html

Meteorites, Impacts, and Mass Extinction - from Tulane University
http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol204/impacts.htm


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