UniServe Science Earth and Environmental Science Table of Contents

9.7 Mining and the Australian Environment
General and background information What is an ore deposit? Formation of ore deposits
What makes an economically viable ore deposit? Mineral provinces Exploration methods
Legislation and mining Landmark decisions and mining Evaluation of an ore deposit
Mining and refining methods Environmental issues Markets - domestic and international
Rehabilitation methods Rehabilitation - a case study Sustainable development practice

General and background information

Mining and the Australian Environment - from HSC Online, Charles Sturt University and the NSw Department of Education
http://hsc.csu.edu.au/earth_environmental/options/mining/

Australian Atlas of Mineral Resources, Mines and Processing Centres - from Geoscience Australia, Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources and the Minerals Council of Australia
http://www.nationalminesatlas.gov.au/

NSW Minerals Council - see in particular Education and Careers
http://www.nswmin.com.au/

Australian Mining History - from Ready-Ed Books
http://www.readyed.com.au/Sites/minehist.htm

Secondary Education Resources - from Minerals Council Australia
http://www.minerals.org.au/education/secondary/secondary_resources

Down to Earth - interactive educational resource from Minerals Council Australia, including Metal Matters and Oresome Froth
http://www.education.cmewa.com/content.php?id=29

Rock Files - from the Minerals Council of Australia, including Aluminium, Copper, Diamonds, Gold, Iron, Lead, Mining and the Environment, Nickel, Silver, Tin, Titanium and Zinc
http://www.minerals.org.au/education/primary/primary_resources/rockfiles

AUSTRALIA’S IDENTIFIED MINERAL RESOURCES 2004 - 86 page pdf booklet from Geoscience Australia
http://www.ga.gov.au/image_cache/GA5476.pdf


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What is an ore deposit?

Mineral Resources - from Tulane University
http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol111/matenergy.htm


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Formation of ore deposits

Economic Minerals and Ore Deposits on the Ocean Floor - from Economic Minerals: How and Why they occur, Ocean Drilling Program, University of Sydney
http://www.odp.usyd.edu.au/odp_CD/econ/economic.html

Plate Tectonic processes - including Geological ore deposits from Australian Museum
http://www.amonline.net.au/geoscience/earth/tectonics.htm

Exploration Hotspots - from NSW Department of Primary Industries: Minerals
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/minerals/geological/initiatives/exploration/Exploration_hotspots

Plate tectonics and Mineral Deposits - interactive diagram from Wiley publishers
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com:8100/legacy/college/skinner/0471152285/drag_dropacts/ch21/fig_21_20_fixed_size.htm

Continental drift secret to mineral deposits - from Geoscience Australia
http://www.ga.gov.au/media/releases/1008798654_3310.jsp

Geologic Processes and the Formation of Mineral Deposits - from the University of Wisconsin - Madison
http://www.geology.wisc.edu/~pbrown/g410/geolores.html

Ore deposits - from Department of Earth Sciences, University of California, Riverside
http://www.agu.org/revgeophys/mckibb01/mckibb01.html

Types of Ore Deposits - from Association of Mineral Exploration, British Columbia
http://www.amebc.ca/primer1.htm

Base Metals - volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits from Volcano World
http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/minerals/base.html

Mineral Deposits - from James Cook University
http://tesla.jcu.edu.au/Schools/Earth/EA1004/Mineral_Deposits/hydrothermal.html

Mineral Resources - from James Cook University
http://tesla.jcu.edu.au/Schools/Earth/EA1004/Mineral_Deposits/mineral_resources.html

Magmatic mineral deposits - from James Cook University
http://tesla.jcu.edu.au/Schools/Earth/EA1004/Mineral_Deposits/magmatic_deposits.html

Sedimentary deposits - from James Cook University
http://tesla.jcu.edu.au/Schools/Earth/EA1004/Mineral_Deposits/Sedimentary_Deposits.html

Mineral Resources - from Tulane University
http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol111/matenergy.htm

Where Biosphere Meets Geosphere - an article from Scientific American Explorations
http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa004&articleID=000AD986-CD32-1CDA-B4A8809EC588EEDF

Iron Ore

Banded Iron Formation - from University of Oregon
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

The formation of iron - from Geoscience Australia
http://www.ga.gov.au/education/minerals/ironform.html


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What makes an economically viable ore deposit?

Economic viability of ore deposits - from Australian Museum
http://www.amonline.net.au/geoscience/earth/geological_ore.htm#economic


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Mineral provinces

Mineral Resources - from Department of Primary Industries
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/minerals/resources/mineral


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Exploration methods

Exploration Methods - from Association of Mineral Exploration, British Columbia
http://www.amebc.ca/primer2.htm

Looking for clues to our mineral wealth - from Nova, The Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/027/027key.htm

Geophysical

Australian Developments in Airborne Electromagnetics - From Minerals to Dryland Salinity - from Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering
http://www.atse.org.au/index.php?sectionid=461

Geochemical

Geochemical Exploration Surveys - a commercial company that specialises in geochemical surveys for hydrocarbons
http://www.eti-geochemistry.com/exp/index.html

Mapping
Satellite imagery

MINERAL AND PETROLEUM EXPLORATION: (Or, How to find a Gold Mine in the Wilderness) - from Remote Sensing Tutorial, NASA
http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect5/Sect5_1.html

The Remote Sensing Tutorial - from NASA
http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/

Prospecting from Orbit - from Earth Observsatory, NASA
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/ASTERProspecting/

Aerial photograph interpretation

Aerial Photo Interpretation and Forest Measurements - while specific to forestry, this site includes a slide show on Principles of Airphoto Interpretation: A Slide Strip
http://www.cof.orst.edu/cof/teach/for220/

Overview of Remote Sensing - from the Federation of American Scientists
http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Front/tofc.html

Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy and Hyperspectral Imaging - from CSIRO
http://www.cmis.csiro.au/iap/RecentProjects/spectroscopy.htm


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Legislation and mining

Regulations Administered by the Department - from Department of Primary Industries: Minerals
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/aboutus/about/legislation


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Landmark decisions and mining

Australian Legal History Week 4: Land - from Australian Legal History, The University of Melbourne
http://webraft.its.unimelb.edu.au/730450/pub/week4.html

Land Tenure - from Geoscience Australia
http://www.ga.gov.au/nmd/products/thematic/tenuremap.jsp

The Mineral Sector and Native Title-A Perspective - from the Parliamentary Library
http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rn/2001-02/02rn23.htm

Mabo

Reports from the International Institute for Environment and Development, including Finding Common Ground: Indigenous Peoples and their Association with the Mining Sector
http://www.iied.org/mmsd/library/follow-up.html

The High Court Recognition of Native Title - The Mabo Judgement and Its Implications. - from Action for Aboriginal Rights
http://home.vicnet.net.au/~aar/aarmabo.htm

Mabo: Ten Years On - from myinternet and Australian Bureau of Statistics
http://www.myinternet.com.au/edu/indigenous/

Native Title Report - 1997 - from Reconciliation and Social Justice Library
http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/disp.pl/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/ntreport_1997/03.html?query=%7E+wik+decision

Wik

Native Title after Wik: Where to Now? - from Murdoch University, Western Australia
http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v4n1/vanhatt1.html

HIGH COURT DECISION ON MABO - from Reconciliation and Social Justice Library
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/archives/mabo/index.html

Native Title Report - 1997 - from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/ntreport_1997/03.html

Wave Hill

An oral history from the Wave Hill strike - from the Green Left Weekly
http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/1996/251/251p15.htm


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Evaluation of an ore deposit


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Mining and refining methods

Oresome froth - be a metallurgist for a day, on CD-ROM or download from Minerals Council of Australia web site
http://www.minerals.org.au/education/educational_resources/oresome_froth2

Mining Methods - from Association of Mineral Exploration, British Columbia
http://www.amebc.ca/primer4.htm

NSW case study: Northparkes Mine - from Minerals Council of Australia
http://www.minerals.org.au/envirosmart/case_studies/nsw

Australian Mining Operation Case Studies - from Minerals Council of Australia
http://www.minerals.org.au/envirosmart/case_studies

Cadia Hill Gold Mine - a virtual tour of the mine, from NSW Mineral Council
http://www.nswmin.com.au/education/minerals_classroom/virtual_tours/cadia/

Bengalla Coal Mine - a virtual tour of the mine, from NSW Mineral Council
http://www.nswmin.com.au/education/minerals_classroom/virtual_tours/bengalla/

Seaham Quarry - a virtual tour of the mine, from NSW Mineral Council
http://www.nswmin.com.au/education/minerals_classroom/virtual_tours/seaham/

Uranium Mining and Processing in SA - from Uranium SA and South Australian Chamber of Mines and Energy
http://www.uraniumsa.org/processing/processing.htm

Mining and Processing - Olympic Dam Uranium, from South Australian Chamber of Mines and Energy
http://www.resourcessa.org.au/environment/envirosmart/mining.cfm

EnviroSmart Case Study: Olympic Dam - from South Australian Chamber of Mines and Energy
http://www.resourcessa.org.au/environment/envirosmart/index.cfm

Making Aluminium - from Alcoa
http://www.alcoa.com/ingot/en/info_page/making_overview.asp

Aluminium Production - from the International Aluminium Institute
http://www.world-aluminium.org/production/index.html


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Environmental issues

Mining evades environmental regulation - from National Parks and Wildlife Service
http://www.npansw.org.au/web/journal/200108/features-mining1.htm

Recent Environmental Assessment Report - from Department of Primary Industries: Minerals
http://www.minerals.nsw.gov.au/environment/Assessment_Reports

Improving industry performance - from the Department of the Environment and Heritage
http://www.deh.gov.au/industry/industry-performance/minerals/booklets/index.html

Reports from the International Institute for Environment and Development, including Room to Manoeuvre? Mining, biodiversity and protected areas
http://www.iied.org/mmsd/library/follow-up.html

Environmental Impacts of Mining - from James Cook University
http://tesla.jcu.edu.au/Schools/Earth/EA1004/Mineral_Deposits/mining_impacts.html

Environmental Aspects of Uranium Mining - a Nuclear Issues Briefing Paper from the Uranium Information Centre
http://www.uic.com.au/nip10.htm

EnviroGulf Consulting - from a private Applied Environmental Consultancy
http://www.envirogulf.com/

Environmental Research and Supervision of Uranium Mining - from Supervising Scientist Division, Environment Australia
http://www.ea.gov.au/ssd/uranium-mining/

Environment assessment process - from Department of the Environment and Water Resources
http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/assessmentsapprovals/

The Beverley Mine - uranium mine development, from Heath Gate Resources inlcudes Environmental Impact
http://www.heathgateresources.com.au/contentmine.jsp?xcid=34

New Uranium Mining Projects - Australia - from World Information Service on Energy: Uranium Project
http://www.wise-uranium.org/upaus.html

Jabiluka Environmental Impact Statement - from Department of the Environment and Water Resources
http://www.environment.gov.au/ssd/about/legislation/jabiluka-eis.html


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Markets - domestic and international

Uranium Markets - from the Uranium Information Centre
http://www.uic.com.au/nip36.htm

Minerals Our Wealth Down Under - a booklet (download in pdf) from Centre for International Economics
http://www.thecie.com.au/publications/CIE-minerals_our_wealth_down_under.pdf

AUSTRALIA'S MINERAL EXPLORATION - from Department of Science, Education and Training
http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/science_innovation/publications_resources/profiles/mineral_exploration.htm

Mineral exploration in Australia: trends, economic impacts and policy issues - report to the Chamber of Minerals and Energy of Western Australia, the Minerals Council of Australia, and the Western Australian Department of Mineral and Petroleum Resources
http://abareonlineshop.com/PdfFiles/PC12452.pdf


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Rehabilitation methods

Briefing Papers - on Mining and the Environment from Uranium Information Centre including Mining & Environment
http://www.uic.com.au/nip.htm#Mining & Environment


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Rehabilitation - a case study

Australian Mining Operation Case Studies - from Minerals Council Australia
http://www.minerals.org.au/envirosmart/case_studies

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND REHABILITATION OF THE NABARLEK URANIUM MINE - a briefing paper from the Uranium Information Centre
http://www.uic.com.au/nabarlek.htm

ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION OF THE MARY KATHLEEN URANIUM MINE - a briefing paper from the Uranium Information Centre
http://www.uic.com.au/mku.htm

Rehabilitation of uranium mines - from Supervising Scientist Division, Environment Australia
http://www.ea.gov.au/ssd/uranium-mining/research/rehabilitation/


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Sustainable development practice

The mining industry, learning from the past, preparing for the future - speech by Charles Lenegan, Managing Director, Rio Tinto-Australia, from World Business Council for Sustainable Development http://www.wbcsd.ch/plugins/DocSearch/details.asp?MenuId=MjYx&ClickMenu=LeftMenu&doOpen=1&type=DocDet&ObjectId=MTk5OTY

Australian Mining Operation Case Studies - from Australian Mineral Council
http://www.minerals.org.au/education/primary/primary_resources/envirosmart/case_studies

More Sustainable Approaches In Mining: Encouraging Progress at the Granny Smith Gold Mine - from Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Western Australia
http://www.sustainability.dpc.wa.gov.au/CaseStudies/grannysmith/grannysmith.htm

Sustainability and the Iron Ore Industry in the Pilbara: A Regional Perspective - from Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Western Australia
http://www.sustainability.dpc.wa.gov.au/CaseStudies/pilbara/pilbara.htm

More Sustainable Approaches In Mining: Encouraging Progress at the Granny Smith Gold Mine - from Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Western Australia
http://www.sustainability.dpc.wa.gov.au/CaseStudies/grannysmith/grannysmith.htm

Sons of Gwalia: Ensuring a Sustainable Future within the Mineral Sector - from Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Western Australia
http://www.sustainability.dpc.wa.gov.au/CaseStudies/sonsofgwalia/sonsofgwalia.htm

Argyle: "Creating a Future" - from Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Western Australia
http://www.sustainability.dpc.wa.gov.au/CaseStudies/Argyle/Argyle.htm

Reports from the International Institute for Environment and Development, including Finding the Way Forward: how could voluntary action move mining towards sustainable development?
http://www.iied.org/mmsd/library/follow-up.html

Prospect or suspect - uranium mining in Australia - from NOVA, The Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/002/002key.htm

Ecologically Sustainable Development - from Department for the Environment and Heritage
http://www.deh.gov.au/esd/index.html

MINING, MINERALS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (MMSD) - a Word document outlining the principles of sustainable development principles from Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand
http://www.mining.wits.ac.za/Introduction%20to%20MMSD.doc

Improving industry performance - from the Department of the Environment and Heritage
http://www.deh.gov.au/industry/industry-performance/minerals/booklets/index.html


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