UniServe Science Earth and Environmental Science Table of Contents

9.8 Oceanography
Oceans - facts and figures How oceans influence conditions on Earth Origin and evolution of the oceans
Oceans and plate tectonics Oceanography and biological environments Oceanography and chemical environments
Oceanography and physical environments Mass motion Pollution of the oceans
Conditions vary with depth Food chains in the oceans Ocean resources
Hydrothermal vents Ocean sediments Oceanographic technology

Wind, Waves and Beaches - webcast of presentation by Prof Andrew Short at the 2005 International Science School, The University of Sydney, available for modem or broadband
http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/foundation/index_iss.html

Oceanography - from HSC Online, Charles Sturt University
http://hsc.csu.edu.au/earth_environmental/options/oceanography/

Information Sheets - from Blue Link Ocean Forecasting Australia, CSIRO
http://www.marine.csiro.au/bluelink/related/infosheets.htm

Articles - from Blue Link Ocean Forecasting Australia, CSIRO
http://www.marine.csiro.au/bluelink/related/articles.htm

The Water Planet - from Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/navigation/chapter22.cfm

The Ocean Floor - from Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/navigation/chapter23.cfm

The Moving Ocean - from Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/navigation/chapter24.cfm

Oceanography Defined - from Ocean World, Texas A&M University
http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/definitions.htm

Levitus Ocean Maps - animated maps which show how various physical and chemical properties of the oceans change with depth
http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/levitus/

Oceans and Seas - from Windows on the Universe, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/ocean.html

An Introduction to Physical Oceanography - lecture notes from Matthias Tomczak, Flinders University of South Australia
http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/~mattom/IntroOc/newstart.html

Lectures list - from The Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies
http://maritime.haifa.ac.il/departm/lessons/ocean/lectlist.htm

Colour Figures for Regional Oceanography: an Introduction - from Matthias Tomczak, Flinders University of South Australia
http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/~mattom/regoc/

Planet Earth and the New Geosciences - in particular THE BLUE PLANET: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MAKEUP OF THE OCEANS and THE BLUE PLANET: DYNAMICS OF THE OCEANS
http://geoinfo.amu.edu.pl/wpk/pe/a/harbbook/other/contents.html

Information Sheets and Articles - from CSIRO Marine Research, includes leaflets on aquaculture, ocean currents around Australia, sewage and stormwater and ocean solutions (technology)
http://www.marine.csiro.au/LeafletsFolder/

Introduction to Physical Oceanography - from Texas A&M University, with chapters on The Physical Setting, Temperature, Density and Salinity and Deep Circularion in the Oceans
http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/ocng_textbook/contents.html

Oceans Alive - from The Museum of Science, includes the water planet, oceans in motion, life in the sea and scientists at sea
http://www.mos.org/oceans/

Ocean Planet - from the Smmithsonian Institute
http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/ocean_planet_overview.html

Deepest Place in the Ocean: Challenger Deep - from Extreme Science
http://www.extremescience.com/DeepestOcean.htm

SeaWiFS Project - from Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA
http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/SeaWiFS/

Oceanography - from Office of Naval Research Science and Technology Focus
http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/

The Oceans and their margins - from Tulane University
http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol111/oceans.htm

Voyage to the Deep - includes sections on Sea Floor Geology, Toxic Chemistry and High Tech Tools, from University of Delaware College of Marine Studies
http://www.ocean.udel.edu/deepsea/

Women Exploring the Oceans - from Women Oceanographers covering a range of professions associated with the oceans and covers oceanographic tools, maribe organisms and more
http://www.womenoceanographers.org/

Expedition into the world of the seas and oceans - from Lighthouse Foundation
http://www.lighthouse-foundation.org/lighthouse-foundation.org/eng/explorer/index.shtml

Oceans - facts and figures

General Characteristics of the World's Oceans - from Institute on Climate and Planets, NASA - includes ocean temperatures, salinity and currents
http://icp.giss.nasa.gov/research/ppa/1997/oceanchars/index.html

Ocean Waters - from Oceanography, Office of Naval Research Science and Technology Focus
http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/water/default.htm

SIO 210 Talley Topic 2: Properties of seawater - from Scripps Institution of Oceanography
http://sam.ucsd.edu/sio210/lect_2/lecture_2.html

Oceanography: Ocean properties - from Sea Friends Organisation
http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/oceans2.htm

Seawater Movement - from Marine Science, Santa Barbara City College
http://www.biosbcc.net/ocean/marinesci/02ocean/swmovement.htm

Salinity - from Windows to the Universe, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/salinity.html&edu=high


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How oceans influence conditions on Earth

A new European ice age? - from Natural Science online journal
http://naturalscience.com/ns/cover/cover5.html

The Roles of the Ocean in Climate Change - a NASA Fact Sheet, download in pdf
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/MediaResources/Roles_Ocean.pdf

The Southern Ocean and global climate - from NOVA, The Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/018/018key.htm

How the oceans influence climate - from the Global Development Research Center
http://www.gdrc.org/oceans/fsheet-01.html


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Origin and evolution of the oceans

Oceanography: Oceans - from Sea Friends Organisation
http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/oceans.htm

The PHYSICAL Ocean - from University of Georgia
http://www.uga.edu/lea/allies/physical.html

Mapping the Past Positions of the Continents - from PaleoMap Project
http://www.scotese.com/method1.htm

Mag-Tect - a PowerPoint Presentation of images related to plate tectonics, inlucdes age of oceans, sea florr spreading, from Unversity of North Dakota
http://www.und.edu/instruct/mineral/101intro/slides/mag-tect/index.htm

Digital Isochrons of the world's ocean floors - article by Dietmar Muller et al, The UniVersity of Sydney, and published in Journal of Geophysical Research
http://www.geosci.usyd.edu.au/users/dietmar/Pdf/Muller%5Fetal%5Fdigital%5Fisochrons%5Fjgr1997.pdf

DIGITAL ISOCHRONS OF THE WORLD'S OCEAN FLOOR - images to accompany the above paper, from University of Sydney
http://www.geosci.usyd.edu.au/research/marinegeophysics/Resprojects/Agegrid/digit_isochrons.html

The Ocean Floor and Sea Floor Spreading - from J. Butler, University of Houston
http://www.uh.edu/~jbutler/physical/chapter17.html


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Oceans and plate tectonics

This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics - from United States Geological Survey
http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.html

Plate tectonics animations - from United States Geological Survey
http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/usgsnps/animate/pltecan.html

Plate Tectonics: The Mechanism - from Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/tecmech.html

A MODEL OF SEA-FLOOR SPREADING TEACHER'S GUIDE - from Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/Metzger3.html

When the Earth Moves: Seafloor Spreading and Plate Tectonics - from Beyond Doscovery
http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.article.asp?a=229

The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics - animations from WW Norton Publisher
http://www2.wwnorton.com/college/geo/egeo/animations/ch2.htm


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Oceanography and biological environments

Community and Ecosystem Dynamics - general information on communities, from Online Biology Book, Estrella Mountain College
http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookcommecosys.html

Where life should not be: Ocean communities without sunlight - from University of Columbia
http://www.columbia.edu/~rwb2103/front.html

Stromatolites (12/11/1999) - from Gardening Australian, ABC TV
http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s69379.htm

Hamelin Pool Marine Nature Reserve - from Conservation and Land Management Online
http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/national_parks/hamelin_pool_mnr.html


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Oceanography and chemical environments

Salinity

Salinity - from Georgia Perimeter College
http://gpc.edu/~pgore/Earth&Space/salinity.html

Why is the Ocean Salty? - US Geological Survey Publication
http://www.palomar.edu/oceanography/salty_ocean.htm

Seawater Composition - from Marine Science, Santa Barbara City College
http://www.biosbcc.net/ocean/marinesci/02ocean/swcomposition.htm

Seawater Movement - from Marine Science, Santa Barbara City College
http://www.biosbcc.net/ocean/marinesci/02ocean/swmovement.htm

All at sea? The chemistry of the oceans - a 10 page booklet on this topic from the ChemSoc (Chemical Society), download in pdf format
http://www.chemsoc.org/networks/learnnet/oceans.htm

Deep-Sea Chemistry - an article in Today's Chemist at Work
http://pubs.acs.org/hotartcl/tcaw/00/mar/nuzzio.html

Where life should not be: Ocean communities without sunlight - from University of Columbia
http://www.columbia.edu/~rwb2103/front.html


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Oceanography and physical environments

Ocean Regions - from Oceanography, Office of Naval Research Science and Technology Focus
http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/regions/default.htm


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Mass motion

Oceans in Motion - from Oceanography, Office of Naval Research Science and Technology Focus
http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/motion/default.htm

Surface currents

Ocean Currents - from Ocean Planet, SeaWiFS
http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/oceanography_currents_1.html

Oceans: Our need to Know - from CSIRO
http://www.marine.csiro.au/LeafletsFolder/13oceansneed.html

CHAPTER 8:The Currents - from Saddleback College
http://www.saddleback.cc.ca.us/faculty/jvalencic/ocean/textbook/chap8/chap8.html

Ocean Surface Currents - from National Oceanographic Partnership Program
http://oceancurrents.rsmas.miami.edu/index.html

Water on the Move Current Events - from Oceans Alive
http://www.mos.org/oceans/motion/currents.html

(q). Surface and Subsurface Ocean Currents - from Physical Geography, an online textbook
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/8q.html

Deep circulation

The East Australian Current - from CSIRO
http://www.marine.csiro.au/LeafletsFolder/37eac/index.html

Tides

How Can the Moon Affect Tides? - from BoatSafeKids
http://www.boatsafe.com/kids/tides.htm

OUR RESTLESS TIDES - from National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
http://co-ops.nos.noaa.gov/restles1.html

Tsunamis

Welcome to Tsunami! - Geophysics Department at the University of Washington
http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/welcome.html

Tsunami: the Great Waves - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/tsunami.htm


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Pollution of the oceans

Oceans in Peril - from Ocean Planet, Smithsonian Institute
http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov:80/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/ocean_planet_oceans_in_peril.html

Danger At Sea: Our Changing Ocean - from SeaWeb
http://www.seaweb.org/resources/documents/reports_dangeratsea.pdf

OHT 16: CHALLENGES TO MARINE ENVIRONMENTS - from Coastal and Marine Studies in Australia
http://www.mesa.edu.au/cams/ohts/oht_16.htm

Topic: Ocean Pollution - from Water Care, South Australia
http://www.watercare.net/wll/himp-opollution.html

protecting the ocean - includes pollution, overfishing and sea mining
http://legrandbleu.swissworld.com/inhalt_protect.html

Threats to the health of the oceans - from Ocean Planet at the Smithsonian Museum
http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/education_threats.html

Coral-Killing Dust - an article from Scientific American
Scientific American Focus Article

Longevity and Causes of Death - from SeaWorld Adventure Parks, includes pesticides, heavy metals, oil
http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/BonyFish/longevity.html

Coastal and Marine Pollution - from Environment Australia
http://www.ea.gov.au/coasts/pollution/

Sea Dumping in Australia - from Australian Hydrographic Service
http://www.hydro.gov.au/n2m/dumping/dumping.htm

Heavy metals

Heavy Metals -More than Rock Music! - from Connecticut Sea Grant
http://seagrant.gso.uri.edu/noreaster/noreasterFW97/revised_metals_article.html

Sewage

BEACH POLLUTION CAUSES - from NSW Environmental Protection Agency
http://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/beach/causes.htm

Oil Spills

Oil spill - from Assessment for Learning
http://cms.curriculum.edu.au/assessment/at/sc/sc_task_09.asp

Oil Spills - a ThinkQuest activity
http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215471/oil_spills.htm

Effects of Marine Oil Spills - from NTERNATIONAL TANKER OWNERS POLLUTION FEDERATION LIMITED
http://www.itopf.com/effects.html

Major Oil Spills in Australia - from Australian Maritime Safety Authority
http://www.amsa.gov.au/Marine_Environment_Protection/Major_Oil_Spills_in_Australia/

Plastics

Plastics in Our Oceans - from Sea Education Association and Wood Hole Oceanographic Institute
http://www.whoi.edu/science/B/people/kamaral/plasticsarticle.html

Long Term Impacts of Plastic Bags in the Marine Environment - from Marine Conservation Society, Ross-on-Wye, UK
Word File

Drowning in an ocean of plastic - from Environmental Organisation Australia
http://enviro.org.au/plastic.asp


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Conditions vary with depth

Into the Deep - from the Scotish Association for Marine Science
http://www.sams.ac.uk/schools/intodeep.pdf

Properties of Sea Water III - from The Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies
http://maritime.haifa.ac.il/departm/lessons/ocean/lect12.htm

Properties of Sea Water IV - from The Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies
http://maritime.haifa.ac.il/departm/lessons/ocean/lect13.htm

VOYAGE 9: The Ocean: Habitat for Life - from San Francisco State University
http://geosci.sfsu.edu/courses/geol102/ex9.html

The Thermohaline Ocean Circulation - from fact sheet, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
http://www.pik-potsdam.de/~stefan/thc_fact_sheet.html

7: The thermohaline circulation - from Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia
http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/info/thc/

Great Ocean Conveyer Belt - from United Nations Environment Programme
http://www.grida.no/climate/vital/32.htm


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Food chains in the oceans

The mighty oceans - from Virtual Wildlife
http://www.panda.org/kids/wildlife/mnoceans.htm

Gallery of Deep Ocean Creatures - from Extreme Science
http://www.extremescience.com/deepcreat.htm

FISHING DOWN MARINE FOOD WEBS - from Natural Science Online Journal
http://naturalscience.com/ns/inter/inter01.html

Marine Habitat - in Alaska Biological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey
http://www.absc.usgs.gov/research/seabird&foragefish/marinehabitat/index.html

OHT 13: Ocean Food Chain - from Coastal and Marine Studies in Australia
http://www.mesa.edu.au/cams/ohts/oht_13.htm

Marine Food Web - from Ocean World, Texas A&M University
http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/forams/forams_marine_food_web.htm

Whales and Food Webs - inlcuding Antarctic Ocean Food Web, from Cool Anartica
http://www.coolantarctica.com/Antarctica%20fact%20file/wildlife/whales/food%20web.htm

Food Webs and Challenges of the Marine Environment - from Coastal Carolina University College
http://kingfish.coastal.edu/biology/sgilman/770Food%20WebsChallenges.htm

Life And Living In The Deep Sea - from Marine Education Society of Australia
http://www.mesa.edu.au/seachange/97/deepsea.htm


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Ocean resources

Oceanic food, energy, and mineral resources - from East Carolina University
http://core.ecu.edu/geology/woods/SEARESOURCES.htm

Marine Matters: Atlas of marine activities and coastal communities in Australia's South-East Marine Region - from Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australian Governament
http://www.daffa.gov.au/brs/fisheries-marine/info/atlas-sth-east

Fishing and Food

OHT 14: FISHERIES INDUSTRY - from Coastal and Marine Studies in Australia
http://www.mesa.edu.au/cams/ohts/oht_14.htm

Marine Aquaculture

Aquaculture Nutrition - a leaflet from CSIRO Marine Research
http://www.marine.csiro.au/LeafletsFolder/04aquanutri.html

Aquaculture in Australia - a leaflet from CSIRO Marine Research
http://www.marine.csiro.au/LeafletsFolder/05aquainaust.html

Aquaculture Farm Environment - a leaflet from CSIRO Marine Research
http://www.marine.csiro.au/LeafletsFolder/03aquafarmenv.html

What is marine aquaculture? - from Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland
http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/fishweb/18549.html

Benefits and impacts of marine aquaculture - from Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland
http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/fishweb/18550.html

Marine aquaculture green paper - from Department of State Development, Queensland
http://www.sd.qld.gov.au/dsdweb/v3/guis/templates/content/gui_cue_doc.cfm?id=48708

Sea Fishing & Aquaculture - from Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania
http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/ThemeNodes/DREN-4VH86L?open

Minerals from seawater & specific chemicals

The Geochemistry of Sea Water - from Cea Ocean Mineral Superfood, commercial organisation
http://www.cea-life.com/ocean/geochemistry.htm

Deep Sea Mining - from University of Puerto Rico at MayagŁez
http://geology.uprm.edu/Morelock/GEOLOCN_/resdeep.htm

Looking for clues to our mineral wealth - from NOVA, Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/027/027key.htm

Ocean Mining - from Mining in Manitoba
http://www.digistar.mb.ca/minsci/future/MINOCEAN.htm

Types of Ocean Deposits - from Mining in Manitoba
http://www.digistar.mb.ca/minsci/future/deposits.htm

Fututre Mining Methods - from Mining in Manitboa
http://www.digistar.mb.ca/minsci/future/future.htm

Power

Making Waves in Power - from Ocean Power Technology
http://www.oceanpowertechnologies.com/

Wave Energy
http://www.waveenergy.no/about.htm

Installation and demonstration of a 20kw offshore wave-energy system - from The Greenhouse Office
http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/renewable/recp/wave/two.html

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Hydrothermal vents

Hydrothermal processes at mid-ocean ridges - from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
http://earth.agu.org/revgeophys/humphr01/humphr01.html

Chemical Oceanography - from Vent Program, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/chemocean.html

Chemosynthetic Communities in the Gulf of Mexico - from Gulf of Mexico Region Environmental Information
http://www.gomr.mms.gov/homepg/regulate/environ/chemo/chemo.html

Exploring the deep ocean floor: Hot springs and strange creatures - from This Dynamic Earth, USGS
http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/exploring.html

Deep ocean to yield secrets of life - from CSIRO
http://www.csiro.au/files/mediarelease/mr2000/DeepOcean.htm

Life with Toxic Sulfides - from Access Excellence and California Academy of Sciences
http://www.accessexcellence.com/BF/bf01/arp/


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Ocean sediments

Marine Sedimentation - from University of Washington
http://www2.ocean.washington.edu/oc540/lec01-16/

Ocean Sediments - from Ocean Drilling Program, University of Sydney
http://www.odp.usyd.edu.au/odp_CD/oceplat/opindex.html

Overview of Marine Sedimentation - from University of Washington
http://www2.ocean.washington.edu/oc540/lec02-2/

Deep Sea Bed Nodules - from Mining in Manitoba
http://www.digistar.mb.ca/minsci/future/nodules.htm


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Oceanographic technology

Technologies for Ocean Acoustic Monitoring - from Ocean Explore, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/sound01/background/technology/technology.html

A Seafloor Observatory of an Active Underwater Volcano - simulation from National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/realtime/nemonet_anim.html

Studying the Ocean Depth - from Extreme Science
http://www.extremescience.com/howdeep.htm

Methods and Equipment Used by Marine Geologists - from United States Geological Survey
http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/pubinfo/margeol2.html

Sensing Oceans from Space - from CSIRO
http://www.marine.csiro.au/LeafletsFolder/48sensing/48.html

Oceanographic instrumentation - from Flinders University
http://www.es.flinders.edu.au/~mattom/IntroOc/lecture13.html

Tools of the Oceanographer: Sampling Equipment - from Marine Science, BBC
http://www.biosbcc.net/ocean/marinesci/01intro/tosamp.htm

7 June, 2000: Up from the Deep - from Arctic Explorers, good images
http://tea.armadaproject.org/rosenberg/6.7.2000.html

Jan 17, 2006: Log by Jennifer Glass - from University of washington, School of oceanography
http://courses.washington.edu/ocean444/galapablog/blogs1/indexJan17J.html

Outposts in the Ocean - from Oceanus Magazine, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
http://www.whoi.edu/home/about/oceanus42_no1_outposts.html

Magnetometers - from Ocean Hemisphere Research Center, Japan
http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/KOHO/Yoran2005/eng/24-25-e.html

Seafloor to Surface to Satellite to Shore - from Oceanus Magazine, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
http://www.whoi.edu/home/about/oceanus42_no1_ssss.html

New Mapping Techniques Help Assess the Health of Hawai'i's Coral Reefs - from United States Geological Survey
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2001/fs084-01/

Oceanography from Space - Fact Sheet from NASA in pdf
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/fact_sheets/oceans.pdf

Sounding Out the Ocean's Secrets - from Beyond Discovery, The National Academy of Sciences
http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.article.asp?a=219

EXPLORING THE OCEAN BASINS WITH SATELLITE ALTIMETER DATA - from National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/bathymetry/predicted/explore.HTML


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