UniServe Science Physics Table of Contents

9.7 Astrophysics

General and background information Observations made from Earth or Space near Earth
Astrometry Spectroscopy
Photometry Binary and variable stars
Evolution and death of stars Image galleries

            General and background information

Stardust All Around Us: Fusion and Element Formation by Mahananda Dasgupta - from Ecoscience, International Science School 2007, The University of Sydney (pdf 2.17MB)

Dark Secrets, Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Skies by Fred Watson - from Ecoscience, International Science School 2007, The University of Sydney(pdf 835.6kB)

Astrophysics for Senior School Physics - from Australia Telescope Outreach and Education

Astrophysics - from HSC Online

Physics Resources for Teachers and Students - from School of Physics, University of NSW

Skyview Cafe Planetarium - interactive planetarium can be set to any location, time and date, from Skyview Cafe

The Cool Cosmos - Information on the Infrared Universe, from NASA's Infrared Processing and Analysis Center in Pasadena, California.

Amazing Space - from Space Telescope Science Institute

Stars and Galaxies - from Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone

Planet Quest, the search for other earths - from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)

Earth's Moon - from Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone

The Sun and the Solar System - from Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone

The Planets and the Solar System - from Exploring Earth, McDougal Littell, Classzone

Astronomy Workshop and Tools - from Douglas Hamilton, University of Maryland

HSC Astrophysics Option - PowerPoint presentation (2.8 MB) prepared by Helen Johnston, University of Sydney, for HSC Enrichment Day 2004

Notes for HSC Astrophysics Option (pdf, 288 KB)- prepared by Helen Johnston, University of Sydney, for HSC Enrichment Day 2004

Notes and Worksheets (pdf, 149 KB) - from 10th Biennial Science Teachers' Workshop, 2002, University of Sydney (presentation by Sandra Woodward)

Tools in Astronomy (pdf, 1 MB) - workshop presented by Sandra Woodward at 11th Biennial Science Teachers' Workshop, 2004, University of Sydney

Ideas for Astrophysics - Techniques for Enhancing Conceptual Understanding  (pdf, 1MB) - paper presented by Rob Hollow at the 11th Biennial Science Teachers' Workshop, University of Sydney, 2004

Home page of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, a survey carried out on the Anglo Australian Telescope at Coonabarabran, NSW

Home page of The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey, a survey carried out on the Anglo Australian Telescope at Coonabarabran, NSW

ASTR 103 - Astronomy Course Notes - from Physics & Astronomy Department, George Mason University

Imagine the Universe: Take a deeper, more advanced look at the universe and the ways that scientists study it. - from Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; includes information on supernova, black holes and white dwarfs

The Astronomer Online - a magazine for the advanced amateur astronomer which publishes details and images of recent observations of astronomical interest.

Education and Public Outreach Information and Teacher Resources - from the Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA. Includes links to animations of Binary systems, Blackholes, Supernovae and Supernova Remnants

NASA Science - Astrophysics

Formal and Informal educational information on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, including a gallery of Chandra Images

Astronomy Outreach and Education - from the Center for Astrophysics & Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego

Galaxies and the Universe - material based on graduate courses taught at Leiden University and the University of Alabama

Zoom Astronomy - a comprehensive on-line site about space and astronomy. It is designed for people of all ages and levels of comprehension. It has an easy-to-use structure that allows readers to start at a basic level on each topic and then to progress to much more advanced information as desired

An Introduction to Astronomical Photometry Using CCDs - a substantial book (155 pages, 2MB) that can be downloaded in pdf covering photometry, telescopes and more from University of Oklahoma Observatory

Leicester University's Educational Guide to Space and Astronomy - This pages provide an information source for those interested in discovering more about Space Science and Astronomy. It contains information on space missions and links to other educational sites.

Good Astronomy Activities on the World Wide Web - from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. This resource list includes a small selection of especially effective astronomy activities designed for K-12 classes and science projects


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            Observations made from Earth or Space near Earth

Measuring the Stars - from the University of Oregon.  Includes information on distances, luminosity classes , stellar classification, HR diagram etc.

From Hipparchus to Hipparcos: Measuring the Universe, One Star at a Time - an article by Catherine Turon, adapted from Sky and Telescope

A multimedia tour of our Solar System - an overview of the history, mythology, and current scientific knowledge of the planets, moons and other objects in our solar system.  Test based with images; over 100 pages of information.

            Galileo

The Galileo Project - a source of information on the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), from Rice University

Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius - with links to Galileo's sketches of the phases of the moon

Observations and experiments of Galileo - from the Astronomical Observatory of Padua, Italy

            Telescopes

Why Build Big Telescopes? - Ideas for Teaching Resolution, Sensitivity and Modern Telescope Design in the Astrophysics Option - paper presented by Rob Hollow at the 10th Biennial Science Teachers' Workshop, University of Sydney, 2002 (pdf, 1.2 MB)

Telescopes: What the Buyer Needs to Know - from Morehead Planetarium, University of North Carolina, articles needs to be saved and opened with MS Word (28 KB)

Subaru: The Telescope, located on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Instruments: Telescopes Would Be Useless Without Them - a run down on the different types of instruments currently used by astronomers at the McDonald Observatory (operated by the University of Texas at Austin).

            Resolution and Sensitivity

Sensitivity and Resolution - Lesson Outline - with multimedia resources from Australian Multimedia for Physics Students, The University of Sydney

Resolution of a Telescope - article by Dawes, Rayleigh and Sparrow - from The Astroscopic labs

Definition of Sensitivity of a Telescope - from Cool Cosmos, maintained by NASA's Infrared Processing and Analysis Centre, IPAC

            Wavebands in space - the electromagnetic spectrum

Measuring the electromagnetic spectrum - article from NASA's "Imagine the Universe"

The electromagnetic spectrum - from European Space Agency. Short description of the seven sub-divisions of the spectrum and how the different wavelengths interact with matter. Pagealso  contains links to related articles

            Adaptive Optics

What is Adaptive Optics - explanation from Center for Adaptive Optics, University of California Santa Cruz

Center for Adaptive Optics (CAO) - at the University of California Santa Cruz.   Includes link to a collection of AO pictures, animations and web links.

Twinkle, twinkle little star: the need for adaptive optics in optical astronomy - from Johns Hopkins University; explains difraction limited resolution, turbulence etc.

Adaptive Optics at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope - from a talk given at the Waikoloa Science Project, 1998

Adaptive Optics - short explanations - from Mt Wilson Observatory, California

Adaptive Optics - Straightening Out Bent Starlight - explanation from The Gemini Observatory

Palomar Adaptive Optics System - includes an image of Neptune with Adaptive Optics on and off for comparison, from NASA

Adaptive Optics - information sheet from the Australian Telescope National Facility, Outreach and Education web site

A Sharper Image - an explanation on the need for adaptive optics on telescopes - from the Why Files, The New Telescopes

            Active Optics

Active Optics - information sheet from the Australian Telescope National Facility, Outreach and Education web site

            Interferometry

Interferometry, explains both radio and optical interferometry - from the Australian Telescope National Facility, Outreach and Education web site

Interactive Interferometry demo - from Planet Quest, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA

Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) - SIM homepage - from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA

Interferometry Center of Excellence - information on interferometers - from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA

Infrared Interferometry Group - information and images from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany

Virtual Radio Interferometer - interactive Applet from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (NSW) University


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            Astrometry

The Hipparcos Space Astrometry Mission - overview of the Hipparcos mission - from European Space Agency

Guide to Minor Body Astrometry - for observers interested in undertaking an astrometric CCD-observing program of minor planets and/or comets, from Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Space Astrometry at The University of Texas - includes Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer

The Center for High Angular Resolution Astrometry, CHARA, a six-telescope optical/infrared interferometric array on Mount Wilson, California, operated by the Georgia State University

Parallax

Stellar parallax - explanation/definiton from University of Oregon

Stellar Parallax - interactive animation from European Space Agency

Distances to Nearby Stars and their Motions: An Introductory Astronomy Lab - This demonstration allows you to explore the geometry of stellar parallaxes and proper motions - from University of Washington

Parallax - definition/explanation from Cambridge University

Stellar Parallax - interactive explanation - from University of North Texas

Parsec

Parsec - definition/explanation from Wolfram

What is the speed of light in parsecs per year? What is a parsec? - from PhysLink.com ("Ask the Experts")

Light-year

What is a light year and how is it used? - from Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA


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            Spectroscopy

Astronomical Spectra and Properties of Stars - Lesson Outline - with multimedia resources from Australian Multimedia for Physics Students, The University of Sydney

The Sun: A Light of Many Colors - course notes and suggested activities - from Astrophys-Assist Educational Resources

Explorations - interactive displays (including Spectrometry) from the European Space Agency

SPECTRA - introduction to the spectra of stars and allied celestial objects - by Jim Kaler at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Spectra of Gas Discharges - from Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg; displays images of the spectra of the lines of various elements observed as emission lines in an electrical gas discharge

On-line Interactive Programs from Kansas State University, Department of Physics - including a simulation of both absorption and emission spectrometry, requires Shockwave

HESSI Education and Public Outreach,  K-12 classroom activities relating to the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI), - from The Center for Science Education at the University of California Berkeley Space Science Laboratory

What can we learn about stars? - from Armagh Observatory; information on stellar spectra

Stellar Spectroscopy - from Surrey Teachers Astrophysics Resource and University of Surrey

Spectral Types of Stars - applet from University of Manchester that allows the user to plot observed spectra of stars of several spectral types


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            Photometry

Basic Astronomical Photometry - course notes from University of Florida

Astronomical "color" - explanation from Rochester Institute of Technology

Variable Star Astronomy - from the American Association of Variable Star Observers; information on the behaviors and properties of stars, with links to teacher notes (pdfs) for each chapter

            Absolute and apparent magnitude

Magnitude System - stellar magnitude system explained; from Astronomy Notes

            Determining the distance to a celestial object

Spectroscopic Parallax - information sheet from the Australian National Telescope Facility, CSIRO, Outreach and Education


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            Binaries and variables

Types of Variable Stars - explanation from the American Association of Variable Star Observers

Astrometry & Dynamics: Double & Multiple Stars - information on double stars, from Royal Observatory of Belgium (Brussels)

Imaging the secondary stars in CVs (Cataclysmic variables) - a seminar presentation from University of Sheffield

Multiple Star Systems - from the Online Journey Through Astronomy, University of Tennessee, following pages cover Spectroscopic Binaries, Astrometric Binaries, Optical Binaries and Eclipsing Binaries

How To Decipher Those Classification Codes - of variable stars from the Astronomical Society of South Australia


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            Evolution and death of stars

Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull - animation from Space Telescope Science Institute

The Life of a Star - information on all the stages that a small star, and a massive star have to go through during their lifetime - from The Astrophysics Group, Keele University

Astronomy 122: Birth and Death of Stars - lecture notes from the University of Oregon relating to the  study of the birth, evolution and death of stars in the Milky Way galaxy

Formation and Evolution of Stars - comprehensive course notes from the University of Calgary

The soup that would be a STAR - explanation of the processes that lead to the formation of galaxies and stars; from the University of Michigan

Recipe for Stars - explains the dynamics of star formation - from University of Tennessee; includes further links and many images

The Constellations and their Stars - from the University of Wisconsin, includes tables of the nearest stars and brightest stars, data includes absolute magnitude and spectral type

            Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram - good basic explanation from University of Oregon

History of the HR Diagram - includes several useful links and an interactive applet

Stars - Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram - from University of Tennessee

Color Designation and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram - from Monthly Astronomy Lessons (Dr Jamie Love)

            Planetary Nebulae

Planetary Nebulae - explanation and images from Students for the Exploration and Development of Space

Nebulae: Emission Nebulae, image gallery - from Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA

Emission Nebulae - gallery of images from national optical Astronomy Observatory


            Supernova

Supernova - information and explanation from Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA)

            Dwarf Stars

Introduction to White Dwarfs - from Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA

The Discovery of Brown Dwarfs - an article from Scientific American

White Dwarfs and Nova - brief explanation from University of Tennessee

            Neutron stars/pulsars

Introduction to Neutron Stars - course notes from University of Marylands

Neutron Stars and Pulsars - information sheet from Imagine the Universe, NASA

Virtual Trips to Black Holes and Neutron Stars - description and MPEG movie from Goddard Sapce Flight Centre, NASA

            Black holes
Black Holes -good explanation  from Astronomical Society of the Pacific; includes classroom activities

Black Holes - explanations from Chandra X-Ray Observatory at Harvard University


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            Image galleries

Hubble Space Telescope Public Pictures - from Space Telescope Science Institute

Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive - from Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA

Asteroid and Comet Observations - Crni Vrh Observatory

Gallery - from the Astronomical Society of South Australia


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