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Physics Table of Contents


9.4 From Ideas to Implementation


Cathode Rays and Television

Semiconductors and Transistors

Reconceptualization of Light

Conductivity and Superconductors

General

9.4 FROM IDEAS TO IMPLEMENTATION - from Bob Emery's site, Senior Physics and Religion
http://webs.mn.catholic.edu.au/physics/emery/hsc_ideas_implementation.htm

9.4 FROM IDEAS TO IMPLEMENTATION - A page of Useful Links,listed alphabetically, from Purplish Hue, St Francis Xavier's College, Hamilton, NSW
http://members.optusnet.com.au/~emeryrg/9_4_from_ideas_to_implementation.htm

From ideas to implementation - from NSW HSC Online
http://www.hsc.csu.edu.au/physics/core/implementation/

From Ideas to Implementation - from HSC Physics, UNSW
http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/hsc/ideas.html

Laws of Physics: A Primer - gives a goodstart for overall information on Quantum Physics
http://www.srikant.org/core/phy11sep.html

Lecture Notes on Special Relativity - uses simple cartoons to illustrate the main points and includes practice problems
http://www.phys.vt.edu/~takeuchi/relativity/notes/

Wavelike Behaviors of Light - from The Physics Classroom Site
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/light/u12l1a.html

Single-Slit Diffraction - Java Applet - from The LearningOnline Network
http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/kap27/Gary-Diffraction/app.htm

Two Point Source Interference- from The Physics Classroom Site
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/light/u12l1b.html

Double-Slit Interference - Java Applet - from Kansas State university
http://perg.phys.ksu.edu/vqmorig/programs/java/makewave/Slit/vq_mws.htm

Light: Electromagnetic Radiation and Atoms - Twenty page .pdf document includes image of visible light spectrum - from Sacramento State
http://www.csus.edu/indiv/m/mackj/eit/AtStr.PDF#search='Light:%20Electromagnetic%20Radiation%20and%20Atoms'

A Questions of Quarks - from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
http://www.llnl.gov/str/JanFeb03/Soltz.html


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Cathode rays and Television

The History of Vacuum Tubes - from ABOUT, a page with useful links
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blvacuumtubes.htm/

J. J. Thomson Cathode Ray Tube - from American Institute of Physics
http://www.aip.org/history/electron/jjhome.htm

Thomson's Cathode Ray Tube - from Chem Team
http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/AtomicStructure/Disc-of-Electron-Images.html

The Discovery of the Electron - from The American Institute of Physics History, good resources about the electron and cathode ray tubes
http://www.aip.org/history/electron/

The Cathode Ray Tube - from How Television Works, How Stuff Works
http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/tv2.htm

Data Display - a commercial site with cut away view of Video Display CRT
http://www.cathoderaytubes.com/

Interactive diagram - from University of Illinois
http://www.chem.uiuc.edu/clcwebsite/cathode.html

Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) - a historical site
http://pyanczer.home.mindspring.com/Tour/crt.html

Electric fields from charged particles

Electric Fields - from Physics Lab Online
http://online.cctt.org/physicslab/content/phyapb/lessonnotes/electrostatics/lessonelectricfields.asp

Magnetic and Electric Fields - a brief description of what these fields are, how they are created, and what effects they produce, from EMF Meters
http://www.trifieldmeter.com/magdone.htm

Electric fields - notes in pdf from Ross Sheppard High School
http://www.shep.net/resources/curricular/physics/P30/Unit2/Topic3_ElectricFields/Topic3_Efields.pdf

Behaviour of charged particles in magnetic fields

Electric and Magnetic Fields - from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
http://pdg.lbl.gov/~aerzber/aps_electricity.html#fields

Electric and Magnetic Fields - from HyperPhysics, Georgia State University
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/magfor.html

Electric fields due to charged plates

Parallel Plates - from Physics Lab Online
http://online.cctt.org/physicslab/content/PhyAPB/lessonnotes/parallelplates/parallel_plates.asp

Charged Parallel Plates -
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys03/aparplate/default.htm

Uniform Electric Field - downloadable interactive, from PhysicsLab, UK
http://www.physicslab.co.uk/Efield.htm

Uniform E fields - notes in pdf from Ross Sheppard High School
http://www.shep.net/resources/curricular/physics/P30/Unit2/Topic4_UniformFields/Topic4UniormEfields.pdf

Measurement of the charge to mass ratio of the electron

A software package which simulates Thomson's famous experiment which succeeded in finding the charge to mass ratio for a beam of electrons (cathode rays) is available from the firm The Logical Interface. The method of using this software is described in a paper given to the University of Sydney Science Teachers' Workshop.

Determination of e/m of an electron - from City Collegiate
http://www.citycollegiate.com/xii_chpxiv1.htm

Using a Fine Beam Tube to Determine e/m for an Electron -
http://physics.csustan.edu/GENERAL/Ian/GeneralPhysicsIIlabs/EoverM/EoverM.htm

Determination of the charge on an electron - from Walnut Valley Unified School District
http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/AtomicStructure/Determine-electron-charge.html

Student Investigations and Experiments

Millikan's oil drop experiment - Java Applet - from NTNU, Taiwan
http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/viewtopic.php?t=537&np=1&nt=1145544901

Millikan's oil drop experiment applet - from Hesston College http://www.hesston.edu/academic/FACULTY/NELSONK/PhysicsResearch/Millikan/millikan.html

Experiments and Observations on Electricity: - from Physics Today. Benjamin Franklin's discovery of the lightning rod.
http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-59/iss-1/p42.html


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Semiconductors and Transistors

Semiconductors - Lesson Outline - with multimedia resources from Australian Multimedia for Physics Students, The University of Sydney
http://www.hscphysics.edu.au/resource/Semiconductors%20Lesson%20outline.pdf

The Age of Siliconby Andre van Schaik and Richard Coggins, given to the 9th Biennial Science Teachers' Workshop, "The New Physics HSC Syllabus", mounted by the School of Physics, University of Sydney, June 15-16, 2000, was written to be of specific use for Optional Module 9.9 of the syllabus (The Age of Silicon). However, it is also an excellent source of information for most parts of this topic.
http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/curric/stage6/phys/silicon/silicon.pdf

It's an Advanced materials World - from NOVA, Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/093/093key.htm

Semiconductors - from Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop, prepared by the Materials Science and Engineering department at the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign
http://matse1.mse.uiuc.edu/~tw/sc/sc.html

Semiconductors - presentation, from Brookdale University
http://www.brookdale.cc.nj.us/fac/engtech/aandersen/engi242/powerpoint/semiconductors.pdf

The Semiconductor Applet Service - from State University of New York at Buffalo
http://jas.eng.buffalo.edu/

Conductors, insulators and semiconductors - from University of Alabama 6-12 Lesson plans
http://astlc.ua.edu/ENERGY/lessonplans/middleschoollessons/middleschoollessonsx.htm#Conductors,%20Insulators,%20and%20Semiconductors

Simple Electronic Devices | Diode | Light Emitting Diode | Light Dependent Resistor -from skool.ie Exam Centre
http://www.skoool.ie/skoool/examcentre_jc.asp?id=4102#base

Energy bands: conductors, insulators and semiconductors

Energy bands - from Integrated Publishing
http://www.infodotinc.com/neets/book7/24c.htm

Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors - from Materials Science and Technology Teacher's Workshop, prepared by the Materials Science and Engineering department at the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign
http://matse1.mse.uiuc.edu/~tw/sc/prin.html

Semiconductor concepts - from HyperPhysics, Georgia State University
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/semcn.html

Introduction to Semiconductors - from Overclockers website
http://www.overclockers.com/articles1173/

Introduction to semiconductors, mainly looking at the behavior of electrons in a solid from a quantum mechanical point of view.- from Connexions website
http://cnx.org/content/m1001/latest/

Principles of Semiconductor Devices- from University of Colorado. An online textbook. Advanced level
http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/title.htm

Carriers: Electrons and Holes - from Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Texas at El Paso
http://www.ece.utep.edu/courses/ee3329/ee3329/Studyguide/ToC/Fundamentals/Carriers/description.html

History of the transistor - from Lucent Laboratories - Includes material about early radios and vacuum tubes
http://www.lucent.com/minds/transistor/history.html.

Transistor History - from Lucent Laboratories
http://www.lucent.com/minds/transistor/brinkman/,

Transistorized - documentary produced by PBS Television in 1999, contains an elaborate teacher's manual.
http://www.pbs.org/transistor/

The Discovery of the Transistor - has a good collection of pictures
http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Andrew_Wylie/history.htm,

Doping: n-type and p-type semiconductors

Solid State Physics: Interactive Learning - Applets from Stonybrook University
http://solidstate.physics.sunysb.edu/teach/intlearn/

An Introduction to Microelectronics Manufacturing and Markets - fromUniversity of California, Berkeley. This hypermedia course reviews the evolution of today's microelectronic integrated circuit (IC) chip technology, explains how IC's are made, and describes the present-day IC markets. This course is designed for people with little or no background in these areas.
http://bmrc.berkeley.edu/courseware/ICMfg92/

The Doping of Semiconductors - from HyperPhysics, George State University
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/dope.html

Trailing the Transistor - a Thinkquest
http://library.thinkquest.org/C006224/introsemihtml.htm

The transistor - detailed web pages from Nobelprize.org
http://nobelprize.org/physics/educational/transistor/function/index.html

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
http://www.faqs.org/docs/electric/Semi/SEMI_4.html

How a transistor works - from Intel
http://www.intel.com/education/transworks/

The Transistor - from R. Adelkopf's site
http://hometown.aol.com/radelkopf/transist.html

Microchips - examples with images from Micron, a solid state memory manufacturer
http://www.micron.com/mti/hr/education/present/mathapps/chips.htm

Solid state devices - from Integrated Publishing
http://www.infodotinc.com/neets/book14/57a.htm

Photovoltaic (PV) Tutorial - introductory Lessons in .pdf form deigned for suppliers of PV cells
http://64.243.182.248/includes/pv%20tutorial.pdf

Student investigations and experiments

Electronic components - series of three investigations from Micron Teacher Resources
http://download.micron.com/pdf/education/lessonplans/electronic_components.pdf

Renewable energy Project kit - from re-energy, California includes Solar Electricity Backgrounder Solar Car Construction Plans
Solar Electricity Lesson Plan
Sustainable Transportation Lesson Plan
Solar Car Poster
http://www.re-energy.ca/t_solarelectricity.shtml

How Solar Cells Work - from How Stuff Works
http://www.howstuffworks.com/solar-cell.htm

Photovoltaic Cells - investigation from NASAExplores
http://www.nasaexplorers.com/show_912_teacher_st.php?id=030109140735

Beaming Down Energy - two lesson plans and investigation from NASA
http://media.nasaexplores.com/lessons/01-052/9-12_1.pdf
and
http://media.nasaexplores.com/lessons/01-052/9-12_2.pdf

Build A Solar Vehicle - an investigation from NASA Explores, students will design and construct a solar-powered vehicle
http://www.nasaexplorers.com/show_912_teacher_st.php?id=030109141451

Photovoltaics in a High Scool Lab - from D.C. Everest Senior High - a student project and report presented as a web site
http://www.botproductions.com/pv/pv.html

How Solar Cells Work - from How Stuff Works
http://www.howstuffworks.com/solar-cell.htm

Photovoltaics - from the US Department of Energy
http://www.eere.energy.gov/states/alternatives/

Photovoltaics - from NREL, USA
http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics.html

Education Page - from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/education/

Direct Energy from the Sun - from Teaching Treasures
http://teachingtreasures.com.au/solar-energy/direct_sun.htm

Introduction to photovoltaic (solar cell) systems - from the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory
http://www.nrel.gov/learning/

Photovoltaic Rebate Programme guidelines - from Australian Government Greenhouse site
http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/renewable/pv/index.html

Cashback Offer - from Renewable Energy NSW
http://www.seda.nsw.gov.au/ren_cashbackoffer.asp

Solar Photovoltaics - from Australian Greenhouse Office Projects and .pdfs
http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/renewable/recp/pv/index.html

Photovoltaics - from Australian Renewable Energy web site at Murdoch University
http://acre.murdoch.edu.au/ago/pv/pv.html

For Teachers - K-12 lesson plans and resources from Micron
http://www.micron.com/k12/


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Reconceptualization of Light

Planck & Einstein's views on science and society - with multimedia resources from Australian Multimedia for Physics Students, The University of Sydney
http://www.hscphysics.edu.au/resource/PlanckEinstein.pdf

Hertz and radio waves

Heinrich Hertz's Wireless Experiment (1887) - from Harvard University
http://people.deas.harvard.edu/~jones/cscie129/nu_lectures/lecture6/hertz/Hertz_exp.html

The Discovery of Radio Waves - from Spark Museum
http://www.sparkmuseum.com/HERTZ.HTM

Hertzís Experiments and Standing Waves - from KeelyNet
http://www.keelynet.com/spider/b-103e.htm

The photoelectric effect

The Photoelectric Effect - from the University of Virginia
http://www.phys.virginia.edu/classes/252/photoelectric_effect.html

The Photoelectric Effect - A Thinkquest
http://library.thinkquest.org/28383/nowe_teksty/htmla/2_8a.html.

History Snapshots has a page devoted to the early experiments on the photoelectric effect, and the question of whether it was Hertz or his pupil Hallwachs who discovered the effect, see http://www.acolyte.co.uk/origins/herz.html.

The photoelectric effect - from University of New South Wales
http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/~jw/FAQ.html#photoelectric

The photoelectric effect - applet showing the effects of light on various metals, from Berea College http://physics.berea.edu/~king/Teaching/ModPhys/QM/Photoelectric/Photoelectric.html

The Photoelectric Effect - an applet from Walter Fendt's Java Applets on Physics
http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph11e/photoeffect.htm

How Breathalyzers Work - including Intoxilyzer (which detects alcohol by infrared (IR) spectroscopy), from How Stuff Works
http://science.howstuffworks.com/breathalyzer4.htm

Planck and black-body radiation

Blackbody radiation - from Hyperphysics
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mod6.html

"Planck and the Quantum of Energy" - long paper which gives a clear explanation of Planck's ideas, from Vigyan Prasar is an autonomous organisation setup by the Government of India's Department of Science and Technology
http://www.vigyanprasar.com/dream/june2001/article-1.htm

The Planck Hypothesis - from HyperPhysics, Georgia State University. Click on Quantum physics link, then Planck Hypothesis
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html

Einstein's explanation of black-body radiation and the photoelectric effect

Diagrams - showing absorption, spontaneous emission, induced emission
http://itl.chem.ufl.edu/4412_aa/Gifs/pc0_08.gif

Quantum Physics - from University of Winnepeg
http://theory.uwinnipeg.ca/physics/quant/node1.html

Black-body Radiation presentation graphics as .pdf - from Ohio State University
http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~durkin/phys113/lect9.pdf

Photoelectric Effect & Blackbody Radiation presentation graphics pdf file -from Brown University
http://gaitskell.brown.edu/courses/PH0008_2002/QuantMech/QuantMech_L02_PhoE_BBody_v7.pdf

Blackbody Radiation - from Egglescliffe School. Includes charts of BBR Curves
http://www.egglescliffe.org.uk/physics/astronomy/blackbody/bbody.html

The Michelson-Morley Experiment

The Michelson-Morley Experiment - from University of Virginia
http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/michelson.html

The Michelson-Morley Experiment - from Eric Weissten's World of Physics
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/Michelson-MorleyExperiment.html

Student investigations and experiments

Build your own Solar cell
http://www.chemistry.ucsc.edu/teaching/Winter98/Chem1B/photo/Solar_Kit_Word_6.html

Diagrams
http://www.chemistry.ucsc.edu/teaching/Winter98/Chem1B/photo/Diagram_Solar.jpg

SnO2 coated glass can be salvaged from LCDs See Article
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Liquid-Crystal-Display-LCD.html

Uncertainty and Idealism - useful site for teacher information only and requires some knowledge on the philosophy of Bohr and Einstein, from Reason in Revolt: Marxism and Modern Science
http://www.marxist.com/science/uncertaintyandidealism.html

Michelson Morley Experiment
http://www.juliantrubin.com/bigten/michelsonmorley.html

Michelson Morley Applet
http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/more_stuff/flashlets/mmexpt6.htm

Albert Einstein Online - starting site for information on Einstein
http://www.westegg.com/einstein/

Java Applets on Semiconductor Physics - applets from Winston Chan's Homepage
http://home3.netcarrier.com/~chan/MATERIAL/


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Conductivity and Superconductors

Superconductors - Lesson Outline - with multimedia resources from Australian Multimedia for Physics Students, The University of Sydney
http://www.hscphysics.edu.au/resource/Superconductors.pdf

Superconductor Report - from Craville Studies
http://www.craville.110mb.com/physics/superconductors.htm

Crystal structure

Bragg's Law and Diffraction: How waves reveal the atomic structure of crystals - an applet from Stony Brook University
http://www.eserc.stonybrook.edu/ProjectJava/Bragg/

Conduction by electrons in a lattice

Superconductivity Theory Background: Electron Conduction Transport - from the Chemical Society
http://www.chemsoc.org/exemplarchem/entries/igrant/theory_noflash.html

Electron Drift - from HyperPhysics, Georgia State University
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/ohmmic.html

Crystal Lattice Structures Diagrams from US Naval Research Laboratory. Especially see IIIb-VIIb Elements and Compounds
http://cst-www.nrl.navy.mil/lattice/

Crystal Structures of Elements - from Molecular Modelling, Lebanon Valley College. Use Chemical Structures link then choose 'Elemental crystal structures standard display'
http://www.molecules.org/

The nature of resistance

Resistance- from Molecular Expressions Web Site
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/electricity/resistance.html

Includes link to

Resistance at the Molecular Level - a Java Applet, from Molecular Modelling
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/filamentresistance/

The phenomenon of superconductivity

Superconductivity - a WebQuest prepared by UniServe Science
http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/quests/superwq.html

Teacher's Guide to Superconductivity for High School Students - from Oak Ridge National Laboratory
http://www.ornl.gov/reports/m/ornlm3063r1/contents.html,

Superconductivity Concepts - from HyperPhysics, Georgia State University
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/supcon.html#c1

Superconductivity Factsheet - from American Superconductor
http://www.amsuper.com/aboutus/super_fact.cfm

A Guide to Superconductivity - from University of Hamburg
http://www.physnet.uni-hamburg.de/home/vms/reimer/htc/contents.html

Superconductivity Basics - from American Magnets
http://www.americanmagnetics.com/tutorial/basics.html

Superconducting Magnets Get Bigger and Better - a pdf file from American Institute of Physics
http://www.aip.org/tip/INPHFA/vol-8/iss-5/p32.pdf

Superconductors Web site - A Guide for the Beginner
http://superconductors.org/

Superconducting magnets: at the heart of NMR - pdf file from Spectroscopy Europe
http://www.spectroscopyeurope.com/NMR_15_1.pdf

Fundamentals of superconductors - three pages of theory with good illustrations seen through internal links - from an educational web site in Lebanon
http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Physics/SolidStatePhysics/Superconductivity/Fundamentals/fundamentals.htm

Current theories of superconductivity

Characteristics of Superconducting Magnets - from American Magnets
http://www.americanmagnetics.com/tutorial/charactr.html

What is Superconductivity? - from the Network of Emerging Scientists
http://psyche.uthct.edu/nes/layinfo/supercon.html

The uses of superconductors

Superconductivity Examples - from HyperPhysics, Georgia State University -includes 4 examples with resistance/temperature graphs
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/scex.html

Recent Data and Results - from The Lemberger Superconductivity Laboratory, Ohio State Unversity
http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~trl/group/data.html

Superconductor Information for the Beginner - maintained by a private individual but it has a particularly comprehensive page devoted to the uses of superconductors
http://superconductors.org/Uses.htm

Student investigations and experiments

A Teacher's Guide to Superconductivity for High School Students - contains instructions for dealing with liquid nitrogen, as well as comprehensive lists of the materials needed for various student activities, originates from someone at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, supported by the (US) Department of Energy
http://www.ornl.gov/info/reports/m/ornlm3063r1/contents.html

The Meissner effect - instructions for a demonstration, from University of Texas
http://www.ph.utexas.edu/~phy-demo/demo-txt/5g50-50.html.

Magnetic levitation - from Science is Fun. A page of links to demonstrations
http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Shire/3075/maglev.html?CFID=2862991&CFTOKEN=42738188

A demonstration of magnetic levitation that apparently does not require a superconductor is described at a site maintained by a private individual
http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/maglev/maglev.html

SQUIDS and Jospehson Devices - from University of Aberdeen
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/physics/case/squids.html

Applications of Superconductivity

Maglevs - from Oliver Keating
http://www.o-keating.com/hsr/maglev.htm

Shanghai's flashy new Maglev - from Ron Gluckman - news article
http://www.gluckman.com/Maglev.html

Principle of Maglev - from Japanese Railway Technical Research Institute
http://www.rtri.or.jp/rd/maglev/html/english/maglev_frame_E.html

How Maglev Trains Works - from How Stuff Works
http://travel.howstuffworks.com/maglev-train1.htm

Safety with Supermagnets: Wear protective goggles as the magnets can attract at high speeds and may shatter

Magnet and Levitation Catalog - from Scitoy USA
https://www.scitoyscatalog.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Screen=CTGY&Store_Code=SC&Category_Code=M

How Electromagnetic Propulsion Will Work - from How Stuff Works
http://science.howstuffworks.com/electromagnetic-propulsion.htm

Experiments with magnets and conductors - from Magnetman
http://my.execpc.com/~rhoadley/magsuper.htm

The Behaviour of Superconducting materials

BCS Theory - from HyperPhysics, Georgia State University - a theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer in 1957
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/bcs.html

BCS Theory - from Britannica Nobel Prizes
http://www.britannica.com/nobel/micro/57_65.html

 


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