UniServe Science Physics Table of Contents

9.6 Medical Physics

Ultrasound waves Electromagnetic radiation
Radioactivity Magnetic field

General

Radiation Physics and the Treatmeant of Cancer- webcast presentation by Dr Clive Baldock at the 2005 International Science School, The University of Sydney, available for modem or broadband
http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/foundation/index_iss.html

The November 2001 issue of Physics Education,36(6) contained a special feature on Medical Physics which included articles on:

Medical imaging - notes in pdf from Biomedical Engineering, The University of Sydney
http://www.eelab.usyd.edu.au/ELEC3801/notes/image_intro.pdf

THE SCHOOL OF MEDICAL RADIATION SCIENCES - at The University of Sydney
http://www2.fhs.usyd.edu.au/mrs/general/index.htm

Imaging techniques and physics, lightbox overview - from Yale: Cardiothoracic Imaging
http://info.med.yale.edu/intmed/cardio/imaging/techniques/techniques_lightbox/

The Visible Human Project Fact Sheet - from Nation Library of Medicine
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/visible_human.html

Visble Human cut-away Viewer- from Anatquest
http://anatquest.nlm.nih.gov/AnatQuest/AwtCsViewer/aq-cutaway.html

Nuclear Physics Technology Saves Lives - from Jefferson Lab.
http://www.jlab.org/news/releases/2006/detector.html

Welcome to Radiology Info - includes ultrasound, MRI and CAT scan from Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR)
http://www.radiologyinfo.org/default.htm

Medical Procedures - includes MRI, ultrasound, Xray and CAT scan from Imaginis Health Specialists
http://www.imaginis.com/procedures/

Medical imaging and the electromagnetic spectrum - from Yale Cardiothoracic Imaging. Click the techniques icon to see a list of those available.
http://info.med.yale.edu/intmed/cardio/imaging/techniques/em_spectrum/

Normal Radiologic Anatomy: X-Ray, CT, MRI and Ultrasound - images from The Virtual Hospital
http://www.vh.org/Providers/TeachingFiles/NormalRadAnatomy/Text/RadM1title.html

MRI: Patient Information - Health System Virginia web site
http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/radiology/mri/mri-patient-info.cfm

Introduction to Medical Imaging Science - from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
http://ric.uthscsa.edu/personalpages/lancaste/DI-II_Chapters/DI_chap1.pdf

Ultrasound

Explore Science - The Physics of Medicine: Ultrasound - visit the "intro", "array", "reflect" and "image", requires Shockwave
http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspDetail&ResourceID=52

How Ultrasound Works - from How Stuff Works including What is a Ultrasound?, The Ultrasound Machine, Different Types of Ultrasounds, Major Uses and The Future of Ultrasound
http://www.howstuffworks.com/ultrasound.htm

Seeing with Sound - download a movie of the heart viewed by echocardiography. Also links to other echocardiography sites with images and sound files, some needing plug-ins to viewing, from Franklin Institute Online
http://www.fi.edu/biosci/monitor/echo.html

Echocardiograms - from Web MD
http://www.webmd.com/hw/heart_disease/hw212692.asp

Echocardiography - from Yale University Medical School.
http://info.med.yale.edu/intmed/cardio/imaging/techniques/echo_intro/index.html

Ultrasonic imaging - notes in pdf from Biomedical Engineering, The University of Sydney
http://www.eelab.usyd.edu.au/ELEC3801/notes/ultrasonic_imaging.pdf

Obstetric Ultrasound - with links to a vast collection of web sites including photos, movies and sound files created using ultrasound technologies.
http://www.ob-ultrasound.net/

A short history of the developments of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
http://www.ob-ultrasound.net/history.html

Ultrasound Physics - a slideshow from Indiana University
http://www.indyrad.iupui.edu/public/lectures/physics/10ultras/

A brief introduction to ultrasound - from Duke University
http://dukemil.egr.duke.edu/Ultrasound/k-space/node2.html

Lesson 3: Behavior of Sound Waves - from The Physics Classroom
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/sound/u11l3b.html

Diagnostic Ultrasound - including Ultrasound Physics, from High Tech Medical Projects
http://www.drgdiaz.com/intro.shtml

Ultrasound detection using Fabry-Perot polymer film sensors - from Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London
http://www.medphys.ucl.ac.uk/research/mle/us-detection/us_detection.htm

UCR - Ultrasound Critical-angle Reflectometry - including a SIMULATION OF UCR DATA ACQUISITION from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
http://www.swmed.edu/home_pages/ucrlab/

Sound and ultrasound - a classroom activity using data logger, from Science Scope
http://www.sciencescope.co.uk/pdf/Sound_and_ultrasound.pdf

Modelling an ultrasound A-scan - from Pico Technologies Ltd
http://www.picotech.com/experiments/ultrasound/teachers.html

POLYMER PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS FOR ULTRASONIC NDE - a paper in The e-Journal of Nondestructive Testing
http://www.ndt.net/article/yosi/yosi.htm

Wave Motion - multimedia activities from ExploreLearning, require Shockwave
http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspResourcesForCourse&CourseID=332


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Electromagnetic radiation

Medical imaging and the electromagnetic spectrum - from Yale Cardiothoracic Imaging
http://info.med.yale.edu/intmed/cardio/imaging/techniques/em_spectrum/

ExploreScience (X-ray Imaging) This interactive Shockwave simulation lets you see how imaging techniques can let you see inside an object (such as the human body).
http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspView&ResourceID=54

X-ray and CAT Scans - from the Physics2000 Table of Contents. Simple introductory descriptions. Scroll down to Einstein's legacy
http://www.colorado.edu/physics/PhysicsInitiative/Physics2000/TOC.html

X ray - from the Learning Network
http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0852903.html

Computer tomography scans - from the Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine
http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/g2601/0003/2601000344/p1/article.jhtml

420 kV X-RAY TOMOGRAPH - from the University of Liege, Belgium. (An industrial version, available as an online presentation or as a downloadable .pdf file.
http://www.ulg.ac.be/bioreact/equip_tomoX_420kV.htm

How Fiber Optics Work - from How Stuff Works
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/fiber-optic.htm

The Birth of Fiber Optics - from Inventors at About.com
http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa980407.htm

Communicating with light - fibre optics - from NOVA, the Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/021/021key.htm

Fiber Optics Tutorial - from Canadian Instrumentation & Research Ltd.
http://www.cirl.com/fiber_optics_tutorial.htm

A Short History of Optical Fibres - from the web pages of Jeff Hecht, author of a number of books and articles on optical fibres
http://www.sff.net/people/Jeff.Hecht/history.html

A Reference Guide to Optical Fibers and Light Guides - from Photon Technology International
http://www.pti-nj.com/obb_fibers.html

Optics in Medicine - from Antonine Education, UK. Revision questions and answers for
http://www.antonine-education.co.uk/Physics_A2/Options/Module_6/Topic_6/TOPIC_6.HTM

Virtual Colonoscopy Tutorial - slide show from University of Tubingen, compares optical and virtual methods of endoscopy, scroll down to page 3
http://www.gris.uni-tuebingen.de/~bartz/tutorials/vis2003/slides.pdf

Engineering Study of an Endoscope Design - from the Human Interface Technology Laboratory at the University of Washington
http://www.hitl.washington.edu/research/endoscope/

Upper GI Endoscopy Tutorial Online- from US National Institutes of Health
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/uppergiendoscopy/htm/_no_50_no_0.htm

Patient Education Upper GI Endoscopy - at Jackson Gastroenterology, includes images and details and diagrams of procedures
http://www.gicare.com/pated/epdgs18.htm

Endoscope - from Health Scout
http://www.healthscout.com/ency/1/002360.html


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Radioactivity

Nuclear medicine - notes in pdf from Biomedical Engineering, The University of Sydney
http://www.eelab.usyd.edu.au/ELEC3801/notes/nuclear_imaging.pdf

How Nuclear Medicine Works - from How Stuff Works includes Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Cardiovascular Imaging and Bone Scanning
http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-medicine.htm

Radioisotopes in Medicine - from Uranium Information Centre Ltd
http://www.uic.com.au/nip26.htm

Files from Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

Radioisotopes and you
http://www.ansto.gov.au/ari/patient/spe.html

Medical and Industrial Radioisotopes brochure available on-line or as .pdf
http://www.ansto.gov.au/ari/brochures_misc/rad.html

Radioactivity, Isotopes and Radioisotopes from Nature, Nuclear Reactors and Cyclotrons for use in Nuclear Medicine
http://www.ansto.gov.au/info/reports/radboyd.html

TUTORIAL: Radioisotope Production - from Crump Institute for Biological Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine
http://www.crump.ucla.edu/lpp/radioisotopes/radioisoprod.html

TUTORIAL: Radioisotope Production - PET Tracers: Structure and Function from Crump Institute for Biological Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine
http://www.crump.ucla.edu/lpp/radioisotopes/tracers.html

Uranium Information Centre, Australia: Educational Resource Papers - including Chemistry of Uranium and the Peaceful Atom
http://www.uic.com.au/education.htm

Nuclear Chemistry and the Community - from ChemCases.com at the Kennesaw State University
http://www.chemcases.com/nuclear/

Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Center Patient Information site - from University of Iowa
http://pet.radiology.uiowa.edu/

Let's Play PET - Main Menu, from UCLA School of Medicine
http://laxmi.nuc.ucla.edu:8000/lpp/lpphome.html

Let's Play PET - Main Menu (ShockWave version of above) from UCLA School of Medicine
http://laxmi.nuc.ucla.edu:8000/lpp/shocked/lppshocked.html
also
http://www.crump.ucla.edu/lpp/shocked/rds.html

Nuclear Physics and Tomography Tutorial- from Crump at UCLA
http://www.crump.ucla.edu/software/lpp/nuclearphysics/imagerecon.html

Isotopes for Medicine and the Life Sciences - a book available as scanned graphic images
http://books.nap.edu/books/0309051908/html/

PET Images of the Brain - from Uppsala University
http://www.pet.uu.se/

Isotope Fact Sheets of Interest from Office of Isotopes for Medicine and Science Programs - including Medical Isotopes (Research), Medical Isotopes (Health Care), Advanced Nuclear Medicine Initiative, Radiation Primer and Nuclear Medicine
http://www.ne.doe.gov/isotope/facts1.html

Nuclear Medicine Mediabook - from Crump Institute, UCLA, detailed medical information on what tracer for what investigation, some images and case studies
http://www.crump.ucla.edu/web/nmm.adp


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Magnetic field

Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Lesson Outline - with multimedia resources from Australian Multimedia for Physics Students, The University of Sydney
http://www.hscphysics.edu.au/resource/MRI%20lesson%20outline.pdf

Research at the IMRR - MRI at The University of Sydney
http://www.imrr.usyd.edu.au/research/index.shtml

Magnetic Resonance Imaging - from Beyond Discovery, The National Academy of Sciences
http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.article.asp?a=129

9.6 Option Medical Physics: 4. Magnetic resonance imaging - at HSC Online
http://hsc.csu.edu.au/physics/options/medical/3019/PHY964netdraft.html

How Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Works - at How Stuff Works
http://www.howstuffworks.com/mri.htm

How strong are the magnets in an MRI machine? - at How Stuff Works
http://www.howstuffworks.com/question698.htm

The picture becomes clear for magnetic resonance imaging - from NOVA (The Australian Academy of Science)
http://www.science.org.au/nova/062/062key.htm

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - from RadiologyChannel
http://www.radiologychannel.net/magneticresonance/

MR Angiography (MRA) - from Radiology Info
http://www.radiologyinfo.org/content/mr_cardiovascular.htm

Insights from a broken Brain - a case study in PET and MRI, from NIH Science Education
http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesResource+FormatsOnline+Resources+High+School/B2BB7C9BC636495785256CCD0072EA52

Who-Is-Who in Magnetic Resonance - Nobel Prize winners and other researchers, from Spincore Technologies
http://www.spincore.com/nmrinfo/who_s.html

The Basics of MRI - an on-line hypertext from Rochester Institute of Technology
http://www.cis.rit.edu/htbooks/mri/

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - notes in pdf from Biomedical Engineering, The University of Sydney
http://www.eelab.usyd.edu.au/ELEC3801/notes/mri.pdf

Frozen anatomic sections and MRI (magnetic resonance image) sections - from Visible Human
http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n02/fundamentos/vhdfront.htm

MRI Scans - from The Visible Human Project
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/mri.html

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - from SpineUniverse, images of spine using MRI
http://www.spineuniverse.com/conditions/072400spin_mri.html?lsm01

Sir Joseph Lamour - from University of St Andrews, Scotland
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Larmor.html

Larmor Frequency - from Hyperphysics, Georgia State University
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nuclear/larmor.html


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