UniServe Science Senior Science Table of Contents

9.2 Medical Technology -- Bionics

Bionic Devices Investigative Techniques
Structure and function of the heart and circulatory system Diseases of the heart and circulatory system
Structure and function of the skeletal system Diseases of the skeletal system
Structure and function of the lungs and respiratory system Diseases of the lungs and respiratory system
Materials Life support

Technological advances that have broadened options for maintaining humans as functional organisms

General

Medical Technology - Bionics - from HSC Online
http://hsc.csu.edu.au/senior_science/core/bionics/

McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine
http://www.upmc.com/Services/MIRM/HowWeHelp/

Meet "Yorick", the Bionic Skeleton - from the US Drug and Food Administration, click on 'Yorick' for a closer look
http://www.fda.gov/oc/opacom/kids/html/yorick_no.1.htm

Cardiologist's 'Living Chip' Changes Science Of Disease Monitoring - an article on Implantable Wireless Biosensors from Science Daily
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/09/060918165342.htm

Functionalized Nanoparticle Based Biosensor Description - from Inframat, a nanotechnology company
http://www.inframat.com/biosens2.htm

Biosensors-Introduction - from University College, Cork, Ireland
http://intel.ucc.ie/sensors/Biosens.htm

Introduction to solid state Sensors - from Virginia Tech
Introduction

The Bionic Body - from Scientific American Frontiers - includes articles on Custom made body parts and Electronic eyes
http://www.pbs.org/saf/1107/

Bionic Eyes

Bionic Eyes Benefit the Blind - from Wired News
http://wired.com/news/technology/0,59634-0.html

Bionic Eyes - from Science@NASA
http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/03jan_bioniceyes.htm

Bionic Eyes - from FirstScience.com
http://www.firstscience.com/site/articles/bionic.asp

First look at 'bionic eye' - from ABC Network
http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s653099.htm

Bionic Eyes Ceramic Microdetectors That May Cure Blindness - from The A to Z of Materials
http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=1544

Cochlear Implants

The Cochlear Company
http://www.cochlear.com.au/Corp/Company/default.asp

The Bionic Ear Institute - and the Cooperative Research Centre for Cochlear Implant, Speech and Hearing Research, topics include "What is a Cochlear Implant?" and "How does a cochlear implant work?"
http://www.bionicear.org/bei/index2.html

Cochlear implants - wiring for sound - from NOVA, the Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/029/029key.htm

Sound Decision: do children get bionic ears too young? - the story - from the Lab, ABC Science Online
http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/cochlear/default.htm

Sound from Silence: The Development of Cochlear Implants - from Beyond Discovery, The National Academy of Sciences
http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.article.asp?a=252

Crowns and Dentures

What is Prosthodontics? - from Australian Dental Association
http://www.ada.org.au/Societies/AANZP/prosthodontics.aspx

Dental Implants FAQs - from Australian Dental Association
http://www.ada.org.au/faqs/faqsCategory,category,Implants.aspx

How Cosmetic Dentistry Works - from How Stuff Works
http://science.howstuffworks.com/cosmetic-dentistry.htm

Crown and Bridgwork - from ADA
http://www.ada.org.au/faqs/faqsCategory,category,Crown_and_Bridgework.aspx

Lenses

The Physics Classroom - Refraction and the Ray Model of Light see Lesson 5 (Image Formation by Lenses) and Lesson 6 (The Eye), from the Glenbrook High Schools District
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/Phys/Class/refrn/refrntoc.html

Image Formation and Human Vision - Java Applet from Molecular Expresions
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/eyeball/

Optical Light Bench - Java Applet from Molecular Expressions, an optical light bench is used to explore what happens to light passing through lenses
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/lightbench/

Information Sheets - from Fred Hollows Foundation
http://focus.hollows.org.au/Resources/#2

Intraocular Lens Implant -from-Eye-Q
http://www.stlukeseye.com/eyeq/IOL.asp

Intraocular Lenses (IOLs) -from All About Vision web Site
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/iols.htm

Phakic Intraocluar lenses - from FDA, USA, used to treat nearsightedness
http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/phakic/

Pinhole Glasses - from International Myopia Prevention Association, read what they say about these alternatives to conventional glasses
http://www.myopia.org/pinholes.htm

How Corrective Lenses Work and How Refractive Vision Problems Work - from How Stuff Works
http://www.howstuffworks.com/lens.htm

Artificial Heart

Progress on development of an artificial heart - from University of Technology, Sydney
http://www.uts.edu.au/new/archives/1999/February/02.html

ARTIFICIAL HEART RECEIVES 2 U.S. PATENTS & IS SUCCESSFULLY TRIALLED ON SHEEP - an article in UTS Engineering News
http://www.eng.uts.edu.au/NewsandEvents/News/newscompressed.pdf

Heart Pump -from University of Technology, Sydney
http://www.science.uts.edu.au/research/heart_pump.html

VentrAssist - from Ventracor, inks for video downloads
http://www.ventracor.com/ventrassist/ventassist_productpr.asp

CardoWest Total Artifical Heart - an image from Cardiology
http://www.rjmatthewsmd.com/Definitions/pop/154fig.htm

Balloon Angioplasty

Coronary balloon Angioplasty - from Medicine Net.
http://www.medicinenet.com/coronary_angioplasty/article.htm

Ballon Angioplasty - from NBC
http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/balloon-angioplasty.html

Catheterization - Treatment - from Einstein Heart Institute
http://www.einstein.edu/yourhealth/heart/article8483.html

Artificial Valves

Heart Valve Center - from Heart Center Online
http://heart.healthcentersonline.com/heartvalve/?general=search_primary

Mechanical Heart Valve - from Heart Center Online
http://heart.healthcentersonline.com/heartvalve/artificialheartvalve.cfm

The Physics Behind Artificial Heart Valves - a student paper
http://www.ipass.net/tonyg/HeartValvesWeb.html

One-Way Valves - making a model heart valve, from PBS: Scientific American Frontiers
http://www.pbs.org/saf/1209/teaching/teaching3.htm

Assuring Heart Valve Reliability - Technology Today Archives from Southwest Research Institute
http://www.swri.org/3pubs/ttoday/summer99/valve.htm

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Prosthetic Heart Valve Information Page - a comprehensive coverage of heart valves in pdf from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
http://www.csmc.edu/heartcenter/images/Heart_Valves.pdf

Heart Diagrams

Unlabelled Black and White- from Science Museum of Minnesota
Heart in black and white: Blood flow indicated - from National Heart Foundation, NZ

How Your Heart Works - from Medtronic, click on Treatment
http://www.medtronic.com/cardiac/heartvalves/intro.html

Heart Valve Surgery - 1 page pdf summary, from Heart Aware
Article

A Heart Valve Tutorial - from The Cleveland Clinic, Lerner Research Institute
http://www.chelationtherapyonline.com/articles/p85.htm

Artificial Hearts - from chfPatients.com
http://www.chfpatients.com/implants/artificial_hearts.htm

LVADs: Left Ventricular Assist Device - from chfPatients.com
http://www.chfpatients.com/implants/lvads.htm

ICDs: Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillator - from chfPatients.com
http://www.chfpatients.com/implants/icds.htm

Pacemakers

Dual Source CT Scanner - from Sydney Adventist Hospital
Web Page

Dual Source CT Scanner - manufacturer's page (Siemens)
Web Page

Understanding Pacemakers - from the Cardiovascular Institute of the South
http://www.cardio.com/site179.php

Heart Pacemaker Implantation - from University of Michigan
http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/aha/aha_pace_car.htm

Pacemakers - from About Website
http://heartdisease.about.com/cs/arrhythmias/a/pacemakers.htm

Artifical pacemakers - from Heart Foundation, pdf document
http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/document/NHF/IS-302_ArtificalPacemakers_Mar2004.pdf

Artificial cardiac pacemakers - from Better Health, Vic
Pacemakers

Pacemakers - animation, from Heartpoint
http://www.heartpoint.com/pacerintro.html

Pacemakers - from chfPatients.com
http://www.chfpatients.com/implants/pacemakers.htm

Pins, Screws and Plates

Technology Today Archives - at the Southwest Research Institute, articles include Smart Skeletons, Putting the Bite on New Materials and Biomaterials: Body Parts of the Future
http://www.swri.org/3pubs/ttoday/archives.htm

Artifical Joints

The Quality of Artificial Hips and Knees - from ABC Health Report Transcript
Quality of Artificial Hips and Knees

Hip Hip Hooray - Bone replacement research, from Deakin University
http://www.gsdm.com.au/newsletters/deakin/nov06/hiphip.html

The evaluation of apatite formation in porous titanium alloy for orthopaedic and dental applications
Abstract

Patient education - Hip - from Brisbane Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Centre. Includes excellent diagrams
http://www.bosmc.com.au/patienteducation_hip.htm

Total joint replacement - from American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons
Total joint replacement

Knee Replacement: Surgery can relieve pain - from the Mayo Clinic
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/knee-replacement/HQ00977

An animation of a total knee replacement - from Illinois Bone and Joint Institute
http://www.goldsteinortho.com/knee.htm

Ceramic Nanocomposites In Artificial Joints- from AzoNanoc
http://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleID=330

Arthroplasty - is the operation for construction of a new movable joint, from National Ankylosing Spondylitis Association
http://www.nassdb.org.uk/f2/Arthroplasty.htm

Total Hip Replacement (THR)/ Hip Arthroplasty - Hip and Knee Centre, WA
Hip Replacement Article

New hip technology - from Fairfield Hospital/SMH
SMH Article

From Chips to Hips - from Oak Ridge National Laboratory
http://www.ornl.gov/swords/chips-hips.html

HIP JOINT REPLACEMENT - from National Institute of Health, in pdf. Click on "Printer Friendly version"
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002975.htm

Hip resurfacing - from the Joint Replacement Institute
http://www.jri-docs.com/JRI_Minimally_HipResurfacing.html

Types of Hip Surgery - from the Joint Replacement Institute
http://www.jri-docs.com/JRI_Minimally_HipReplacement_Types.html

Hip Replacement Surgery - from the Joint Replacement Institute, postoperative advice
http://www.jri-docs.com/JRI_Prospective_Post_Hip.html

Total Hip Replacement - from Boston Total Joints Assocaites, Massachusetts General Hospital
http://www.bostontotaljoint.com/thr.html

What Is Knee Replacement? - from Health Information Publications
What Is Knee Replacement?

ARTIFICIAL FINGER JOINTS - from WCHS-TV Eyewitness News
http://www.wchstv.com/newsroom/healthyforlife/2089.shtml

The New South Wales Artificial Limb Service (NSW-ALS)
http://rehabtech.eng.monash.edu.au/nsw-als/

Joint Replacement Surgery Of The Hand - from Medicine.Net.com
Joint Replacement Surgery Of The Hand

Prosthetic limbs

Bionic Limbs - from Ossur Bionics
http://bionics.ossur.com/

How a bionic arm works - great image, from . Enlarging the image allows text to be read
Bionic Arm
also at
Bionic arm

How the Bionic Arm works - animation from CNN
Bionic Arm

Clever artificial hand developed - from BBC News
Article

Getting an artificial leg up - from the Lab, ABC Science Online
http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/leg/default.htm

Theresa gets a leg up - a jersey cow gets an artificial limb, from News Network
Story

Rothschild's Orthopedic Appliances - commercial site for the makers of prosthetic limbs
http://www.rothschildsorthopedics.com/

Bionic ear spin-off rescues limbs - from The Age
Article

Brain waves drive man's bionic arm- From CBS NEWS
Article


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Non-invasive and minimally invasive medical techniques have greatly reduced risks to patients

What is Nuclear Medicine? - from the Society of Nuclear Medicine, download an 8 page .pdf brochure
http://interactive.snm.org/index.cfm?PageID=3106&RPID=969

Nuclear medicine fast Facts - from the Society of Nuclear Medicine, 1 page .pdf file
http://www.medinuc.com/Newsarticles/nuclearmedicinefastfacts.pdf

Physics Saves Lives - from American Institute of Physics. Medical Imaging text is supported by some interesting graphics showing MRI, Positron Emission Tomography, Mammography and PET scans. Two page brochure
http://www.aip.org/success/medical_imaging.pdf

X-ray

X-ray Imaging - from ExploreScience, this basic interactive Shockwave simulation lets you see how imaging techniques can let you see inside an object (such as the human body), free access allows five minutes only. Read instructions in scrolling box.
http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspView&ResourceID=54

X-ray and CAT Scans - from the Physics2000 Table of Contents Scroll Down
http://www.colorado.edu/physics/PhysicsInitiative/Physics2000/TOC.html

3D imaging

CAT Scan - from Mayo Clinic
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/ct-scan/FL00065

CAT Scan Intreactive - from National Institutes of Health, USA . Requires Flash Player and Adobe Reader
 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/ctscan/htm/index.htm

Ultrasound

Ultrasound: How does it work - from ExploreScience, The Physics of Medicine: Ultrasound - visit the "intro", "array", "reflect" and "image", requires Shockwave, free access for five minutes
Interactive

How Ultrasound Works - from How Stuff Works - What is a Ultrasound?, The Ultrasound Machine, Different Types of Ultrasounds, Major Uses and The Future of Ultrasound
http://www.howstuffworks.com/ultrasound.htm

Echocardiograms -from Heart Center Online
http://heart.healthcentersonline.com/noninvasivecardiactest/echocardiogram.cfm

Seeing with Sound - download a movie of the heart viewed by echocardiography. Also links to other echocardiography sites with images and sound files, some needing plug-ins to viewing, from Franklin Institute Online
http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/monitor/echo.html

Obstetric Ultrasound - with links to web sites including photos, movies and sound files created using ultrasound technologies
http://www.ob-ultrasound.net/

A short History of the developments of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology - from Obstetric Ultrasound
http://www.ob-ultrasound.net/history1.html

Thermography

Breast Cancer and Early Detection - including What is Digital Infrared Imaging?, from Pacific Chiropractic and Research Center
http://www.breastthermography.com/

Breast Thermography - a responsible second look - from the International Academy of Clinical Thermology
http://www.iact-org.org/articles/articles-second-look.html

Therma-scan Inc - images created using thermography
http://www.thermascan.com/

Medical Thermography - Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging, from Medical Monitoring Systems Pty Ltd
http://www.meditherm.com/

Thermology - the study of heat (using infrared thermal imaging)
http://www.thermology.com/

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

MRI - lesson plan and videos from Australian Mulimedia for Physics Students
http://www.hscphysics.edu.au/resource/MRI%20lesson%20outline.pdf

MRI Machine - from How Stuff Works
Article

Breakthroughs in Bioscience: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - from Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, download a 12 page .pdf http://opa.faseb.org/pdf/mri.pdf

The picture becomes clear for magnetic resonance imaging - from NOVA (The Australian Academy of Science)
http://www.science.org.au/nova/062/062key.htm

The Basics of MRI - an on-line hypertext from Rochester Institute of Technology
http://www.cis.rit.edu/htbooks/mri/

The Development of Magnetic Resonance Imaging - from Beyond Discovery, The National Academy of Sciences
http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.article.asp?a=129

How strong are the magnets in an MRI machine? - at How Stuff Works
http://www.howstuffworks.com/question698.htm

MR Angiography (MRA) - from Radiology Info
http://www.radiologyinfo.org/content/mr-angiography.htm

Angioplasty

Angioplasty Patient Center Page - from Heart Site includes What is Coronary Angioplasty? How is Angioplasty or PTCA performed? and Show me the results of an angioplasty procedure, from HeartSite.com
http://www.angioplasty.org/nv/patientcenter.html

Transmyocardial Revascularization (TMR) - from American Heart Association
http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4782

Key hole surgery

Laparoscopy Fact Sheet - from BUPA, (UK's leading provider of private health care insurance, hospitals and health care services)
http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/html/Laparoscopy.html

Laparoscopy - an excellent site with diagrams, photos and movies of procedures and tissue.
http://www.laparoscopy.com/

What happens during laparoscopy? - from About Women's Health including The Benefits of Laparoscopy and Uses for Laparoscopy in Gynecologic Surgery
http://womenshealth.about.com/library/weekly/aa090400a.htm?terms=laparoscopy

Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy: Less invasive surgery for knees and other joints - from the Mayo Clinic
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/arthroscopy/AR00003/

Video: Arthroscopy\ic Knee Surgery - from the Mayo Clinic
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/arthroscopic-knee-surgery/MM00006

Knee Arthroscopy - good images showing technique, from EMEDx
http://www.emedx.com/emedx/clinician_education/clinician_education_modules/knee_modules/knee_text/knee_arthroscopy.htm


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Structure and function of the heart and circulatory system

Heart Diagrams

Unlabelled Black and White- from Science Museum of Minnesota
Heart in black and white: Blood flow indicated - from National Heart Foundation, NZ

Heart Information - from Heart Foundation
http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/Heart_Information.htm

Map of the Human Heart - from NOVA, PBS Online
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/eheart/human.html

Circulatory System - video from YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3ZDJgFDdk0&feature=related

The Heart: An Online Exploration - from The Franklin Institute Online
http://sln.fi.edu/biosci/heart.html

The Cardio-Respiratory System
http://www.shoppingtrolley.net/cardio-respiratory-system.shtml

The Circulatory System
http://www.shoppingtrolley.net/circulatory-system.shtml


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Diseases of the heart and circulatory system

Heart and Blood Vessel Diseases - from National Institute of Health
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Browse/Heart.html

Heart Conditions - from Australian Heart Foundation
http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/Heart_Information/Heart_Conditions.htm

Men and Heart Disease - from WebMD, covers a range of heart diseases
http://my.webmd.com/content/pages/9/1675_57860.htm?lastselectedguid={5FE84E90-BC77-4056-A91C-9531713CA348}

PediHeart - a web site that deals mainly with congenital heart conditions which can be accessed at a 'Kid' or 'Parent' level
http://www.pediheart.org/

Women's Health: Heart Disease - from Imaginis includes "Diagnostic Tests Used to Check for Heart Problems"
http://www.imaginis.com/heart-disease/

Heart diseases - from National Institutes of Health
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/heartdiseasesgeneral.html

Heart Diseases: Prevention - from National Institutes of Health
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/heartdiseasesprevention.html

Healthy Living - from Australian Heart Foundation
http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/Healthy_Living.htm

Eating for a Healthy Heart - download this pdf brochure from Food and Drug Administration, USA
http://www.fda.gov/opacom/lowlit/hlyheart.pdf


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Structure and function of the skeletal system

Science & Nature: Human Body & Mind - from BBC, UK, with Skeleton and Interactive skeleton
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/index.shtml?skeleton

Radiographic Anatomy of the Skeleton - from Loyola University of Chicago
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/meded/Radio/curriculum/Bones/Strcture_Bone_f.htm

Radiographic Anatomy of the Skeleton - from Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Hungary
http://www.szote.u-szeged.hu/Radiology/Anatomy/skeleton.htm

Skeleton of a horse
Image

Skeleton of a Cow
Image

Anatomy of the Cat - Skeleton - image
http://www.maxshouse.com/anatomy-sleleton.htm

Structure of the Skeleton - from University of Guelph, Canada - includes diagrams and comparisons of pig and beef skeletons
http://www.aps.uoguelph.ca/~swatland/ch2_1.htm

Joint Types - includes diagrams of major joint types, from University of Portsmouth
http://www.sci.port.ac.uk/rad/anatomy/05/006.htm

Muscles and Movements - from Association for Special Education, UK, a variety of interactive and paper-based resources encouraging a multi-sensory approach
http://www.ase.org.uk/sen/focus/muscles.htm


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Diseases of the skeletal system

Rheumatoid Arthritis -from Better Health, Vic
http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/rheumatoid_arthritis

Joint replacement Surgery and You - from National Institutes of Health
http://www.niams.nih.gov/hi/topics/arthritis/jointrep.htm

Artificial Joints - from Discoveries in Medicine
http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/Apg-Ban/Artificial-Limb-and-Joint.html

JOINT REPLACEMENT IN THE RHEUMATOID HAND - use of silicone joints, from a hand consultant at Queen Victoria Hospital, UK
http://www.pncl.co.uk/~belcher/swanson.htm

Distribution of Total Knee Replacement Procedures by Patient Age, Canada, Fiscal 2002 - pie chart, from Canadian Institute for Health Information
http://www.cihi.ca/cihiweb/en/AR30_2005_fig10_e.html

A Study Of Failed Replacement Joints - from the Cleveland Clinic
http://www.lerner.ccf.org/bme/education/k12/biomaterials/

Biomechanical Materials Testing Laboratory - from Flinders University
http://som.flinders.edu.au/FUSA/ORTHOWEB/lab.htm

Building New Body Parts - from the Chemical Engineers Resource Page
http://www.cheresources.com/newparts.shtml

Modelling Human Joints - from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
http://www.llnl.gov/str/Karin.html

TRIBOLOGY OF PROSTHETIC JOINTS - simulators to study the effects of friction on prosthetic joints, from Helsinki University of Technology
http://www.machina.hut.fi/project/hip2001/

Biomechanics of Artificial Joints - from University of Michigan
http://www.engin.umich.edu/class/bme456/artjoint/artjoint.htm

Orthopaedic Metal Alloys - from Total Joints Web Page
http://www.totaljoints.info/orthopaedic_metal_alloys.htm


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Structure and function of the lungs and respiratory system

Detailed Notes on the Respiratory System - from Abbotsford Collegiate
http://www.abbysenior.com/biology/respiratory_system.htm

Printable Blank Outline Picture of the Respiratory System - from Lesson Tutor
http://www.lessontutor.com/jm_respiratory.html

Diagram of respiratory System
http://www.sweethaven02.com/RespDisease/fig0102.jpg

How Our Lungs Work - from The Lung Association, Canada
http://www.lung.ca/lung101-renseignez/index_e.php

The respiratory system - from Better Health Channel, Victoria
http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Respiratory_system?OpenDocument

Blue Histology - Respiratory System - from University of Western Australia
http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/CorePages/Respiratory/Respir.htm

Blue Histology - Respiratory System Large Images - from University of Western Australia - scroll down to L to locate excellent images of tissues
http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/Big/Big.htm


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Diseases of the lungs and respiratory system

Diseases A - Z - from The Lung Association, Canada
http://www.lung.ca/diseases-maladies/a-z_e.php

Lung Pictures - from the University of Iowa
http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/lungpictures.html

Diseases of the respiratory system - from Disability Online, State Government, Victoria
http://www.disability.vic.gov.au/dsonline/dsarticles.nsf/pages/hc_respiratorysystem?OpenDocument

Respiratory system - from Better Health, Victoria
Respiratory system


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Materials

General

MatWeb, The Online Materials Information Resource - Search on "Medical" to access Fact Sheets
http://www.matweb.com/

Biomaterials: Body Parts of the Future - an article in Technology Today, from South West Research Institute
http://www.swri.org/3pubs/ttoday/fall95/implant.htm

Superalloys

Powder Metallurgy Superalloys - from AZoM.com, Metals, Ceramics, Polymers, Composites: an Engineers Resource
http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=152

Hip and Knee Replacement - search for superalloys, from New York University Medical Center
http://www.msnyuhealth.org/interwoven/nyu_hip_knee.html

Ceramic

Ceramic Hip Replacement - from manufacturer Stryker
http://www.stryker.com/jointreplacements/sites/trident/

Silicone and Substitutes

ASTM F881 - 94(2006) Standard Specification for Silicone Elastomer Facial Implants - includes links to test methods
http://www.astm.org/Standards/F881.htm

Products - from Superior Patient Aesthetics, their range of facial implents made from silicone elastomer
http://www.superiorpatientaesthetics.com/

Biomedical Polymers - from The Polymer Technology Group
http://www.polymertech.com/BMP/BMP_index.html

Non-Medical Silicone Implants For Dummies v1.0 - strangely interesting article about body enhancing implants, from BME: Body Modification Ezine
http://www.bmezine.com/news/guest/20050926.html

Implant product descriptions and images - from Plastic Surgery Products
http://www.psp-interactive.com/issues/articles/2007-08_10.asp

Silicone Urethane Copolymers - from Medical Device Link
http://www.devicelink.com/mddi/archive/00/04/011.html

Elasthane - from Polymertech (The Polymer Technology Group)
http://www.polymertech.com/BMP/BMP_elasthane.html

High Density Polyethylene

Artificial Limb manufacture in Tanzania - STAND (TZ) is a Non Governmental Organization operating in Tanzania that produces and fits prostheses to amputees free-of-charge, utilizing volunteers who receive vocational training as technicians.
http://www.familycare.org/network/f17.htm

Production and distribution of assistive devices for people with disabilities - from ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Production and distribution of assistive devices for people with disabilities

Prosthetic Feet for Low-Income Countries - from Journal of Prosthetics & Orthotics
http://www.oandp.org/jpo/library/2005_04S_047.asp

Technology Jaipurfoot History - from Jaipurfoot.org
http://www.jaipurfoot.org/03_Technology_history.asp

The $28 Foot - from TIME magazine, Jaipur is famous in strife-torn areas as the birthplace of an extraordinary prosthesis, or artificial limb, known as the Jaipur foot, that has revolutionized life for millions of land-mine amputees
http://www.time.com/time/reports/heroes/foot.html

Health Matters - from Health Matters, scroll down to diagram of Jaipur foot
http://www.handsontv.info/series6/05_Health_Matters_reports/report3.html

UHMW vs. Teflon - from Crown Plastics
http://www.crownplastics.com/Teflon-UHMW.htm

Fluoropolymer

Teflon/Carbon Fibre

Polymer composites - biomedical applications, from University of Nottingham
http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~eazwww/composite/biomedical.html

Problems & Solutions - biomedical applications, from manufacturer of Fluoropolymer, Interplastic
http://www.interplastinc.com/prob.htm

BIOMIMETICS: Lessons from nature for engineering - from University of Reading
http://people.bath.ac.uk/en2pdd/Pete%20Site/biomimetic-report.htm


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Life support

Cardio-Pulmonary Bypass: The Perfusionist and the Heart Lung Machine - from Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne
http://www.wch.org.au/cardiac_surg/perfusion.cfm?doc_id=3502

Artificial Lung Laboratory - at University of Pittsburg Medical Center
http://mcgowaninstitute.upmc.com/research/artificialorgans/lung.aspx

Projects - from University of Pittsburg Medical Center
http://www.mirm.pitt.edu/medicaldevices/projects.asp

The Implantable Artificial Heart Project - from Heart Pioneers
http://www.heartpioneers.com/

Artificial Heart - from How Products Are Made
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Artificial-Heart.html

Heart Lung Machine - from Heart Center Online, click on the image, requires Shockwave
http://heart.healthcentersonline.com/bypasssurgery/heart-lungmachine.cfm

Time to heal - artificial lung that supports the natural respiratory organs- from Novalung GmbH
http://www.bio-pro.de/en/region/stern/magazin/00740

Minimally Invasive Surgery

Keyhole surgery new gold standard for colon cancer treatment - from Leeds University
News article

Keyhole Surgery - from Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust (GOSH) and UCL Institute of Child Health (ICH)
http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/factsheets/families/F040282/

What is Minimally Invasive Surgery? - from San Francis Care
http://www.saintfranciscare.com/body.cfm?id=669&action=detail&ref=85&history=31

Surgeons trial new hi-tech training - from CSIRO
http://datamining.csiro.au/files/mediaRelease/mr2001/VRSurgeryTrial.htm

Kidney keyhole surgery - from NineMSN
http://health.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=2802

Laparoscopic (endoscopic) surgery - from Sydney Gynaecological Endoscopy Group
http://www.zip.com.au/~jphegan/sgeg/ambgyn.htm

Lithotripsy : Ultrasound Treatment For Kidney Stones - from Better Health Victoria
Lithotripsy

St. Vincent's Mobile Lithotripsy Service Crushes Kidney Stones Across Victoria - from St Vincent's Hospital, best viewed in Print Preview
http://www.svhm.org.au/lithotripsy/background.htm



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