UniServe Science Senior Science Table of Contents

9.7 Pharmaceuticals

Detecting and interpreting signals - the central nervous system The circulatory system - transporting pharmaceuticals Inflammation - cause and control
Analgesics and Pain - cause and control The role of penicillin and other antibiotics Understanding bacterial disease

General Background Material

Senior Science: Pharmaceuticals - from HSC Online
http://hsc.csu.edu.au/senior_science/options/pharma/

Medicines By Design: The Biological Revolution - in Pharmacology from National Insitute of General Medical Sciences including Drug Delivery (Nasal Sprays, Drug Implants and Pill Pumps).
http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/medbydesign/

Medicines By Design: The Biological Revolution in Pharmacology - from Healthier You
http://www.healthieryou.com/rxdrugs.html

The Pharmaceutical Collection - from Molecular Expressions, with explanations of the uses of different drugs including photomicrographs of the pharmaceuticals,
including Antibiotics
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/pharmaceuticals/

Mother Nature's Medicine Cabinet - an article from Scientific American on Phytotherapy or drugs from plants
http://vienna-doctor.com/ENG/Articles_ENG/natures_medicine_cabinet.html

What is pharmacognosy? - the study of drugs from natural origins, especially drugs from plants, from Pharmacognosy Consulting Services
http://www.pharmacognosy.com/

Pharmacognosy - from Drugstore Museum
http://www.drugstoremuseum.com/sections/level_info2.php?level_id=63&level=1

Detecting and interpreting signals - the central nervous system

The Human Central Nervous System - from Kimball's Biology Pages
http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/C/CNS.html

Central Nervous System - colour images, from NIH, USA
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19588.htm

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system - from NIH, USA
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/8679.htm

Nervous System Review - useful Black and White diagrams, from Benet.org
diagrams

The Nervous System - from the Online Biology Book, Estrella Mountain Community College
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookNERV.html

The Nervous System - from Biology Mad
http://www.biologymad.com/NervousSystem/NervousSystem.htm

Explore the Nervous System - from Neuroscience for Kids at University of Washington
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html

Animated Tutorial: Synaptic transmission - from Sumanas Inc
http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/synaptictransmission.html

The Synapse - from Cool School
http://www.coolschool.ca/lor/BI12/unit12/U12L04.htm

Getting our heads around the brain - from NOVA, The Australian Academy of Science
http://www.science.org.au/nova/040/040key.htm

Brain Briefings - short articles on a range of topics including the senses, from the Society for Neuroscience
http://www.sfn.org/briefings/

Reflex Arc - from About.com
http://www.answers.com/topic/reflex-arc

Basic reflex Terminology - from Austin Peay University
Terminology

Seeing, Hearing and Smelling the World: New Findings Help Scientists Make Sense of Our Senses - from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The booklet can be downloaded in pdf from the web page.
http://www.hhmi.org/senses/

Interactives to test reaction times

FASTBALL REACTION TIME - baseball interactive from Exploratorium
http://www.exploratorium.edu/baseball/reactiontime.html

The Online Reaction Time Test - from Thomas James Allen, Get Your Website Here
http://getyourwebsitehere.com/jswb/rttest01.html

Reaction time measurement - car braking simulation, from NTNUJAVA Virtual Physics Laboratory
http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=137

How fast are your reactions? - from BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/sleep/sheep/reaction_version5.swf

Details: Sight vs. Sound Reflexes - from Explore Science
http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspDetail&ResourceID=43

Sight vs Sound Reflexes - from
http://www.sciencejoywagon.com/explrsci/media/reflex.htm

Make your own reaction timer - from TopEnd Sports
http://www.topendsports.com/testing/reactionmake.htm

Activity: Testing your reaction time - from CSIRO
http://www.csiro.au/scope/activities/e11c02activity.htm


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The circulatory system - transporting pharmaceuticals

The Circulatory System - from the Online Biology Book, Estrella Mountain Community College
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookcircSYS.html

Circulatory System - summary diagram showing blood circulation, from Internet Encyclopedia of Science
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/C/circulatory_system.html

The Heart and the Circulatory System - from Access Excellence
http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/heart_anatomy.html

Cardiovascular System Histology - from SIU School of Medicine Study Aid
http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/cvguide.htm#vessels

Artery and Vein Comparison - from SIU School of Medicine Study Aid
http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/CR019b.htm

Blood Histology - from SIU School of Medicine Study Aid
http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/intro/blood.htm

Normal Blood Smear - from University of Utah
http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/jpeg5/HEME001.jpg

How Blood Works - from How Stuff Works
http://www.howstuffworks.com/blood.htm

Overview of Blood and Blood Components- from Children's Hospital of Wisconsin
http://www.chw.org/display/PPF/DocID/21846/router.asp

Blood - from John Kimball's Biology Pages
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/B/Blood.html

Animations, movies and images

Making and Staining Blood Smears - from University of Vermont
http://www.uvm.edu/~jschall/techniques.html

Making and Staining Blood Smears - from University of Vermont
http://www.uvm.edu/~jschall/pdfs/techniques/bloodsmears.pdf

Hematology Laboratory: Proper Preparation of a Peripheral Blood Smear with Wright's Stain - (basically a mixture of methylene blue and eosin with in methanol), from Carnegie Mellon University
http://cls.umc.edu/COURSES/CLS312/bloodsm.doc

Normal Blood Film - from Queens University, Canada
http://meds.queensu.ca/medicine/deptmed/hemonc/macro/slide14.html

Animation of white blood cell attacking bacteria - from McGraw Hill
Animation

Blood cells - from The Exploratorium, with two Movie links
Blood Cells

Anatomy of a Splinter - from Cells Alive
http://www.cellsalive.com/ouch1.htm


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Inflammation - cause and control

Inflammation - including The response to injury and infection and Factors involved in cell damage
http://nic.sav.sk/logos/books/scientific/node4.html

Acute Inflammation - from HumPath Website
http://www.humpath.com/Acute-inflammation

What You Need to Know About Inflammation - from Cleveland Clinic
http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/0200/0217.asp?index=4857

Prostaglandins: Chemical Messengers - images of prostaglandins from The Molecular Expressions Photo gallery
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/prostaglandin/prostaglandin.html

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Pain - cause and control

Analgesics

Chronic Pain - from Senior Health, including New and Old Drugs for Pain
http://seniorhealth.about.com/library/conditions/blchronicpain.htm

How Aspirin Works - from How Stuff Works
http://www.howstuffworks.com/aspirin.htm

Aspirin Adventures - from Chemical Heritage Foundation
http://www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/pharm/asp/asp00.htm

'An Aspirin a Day' -- Just Another Cliché? - from the US Food and Drug Administration
http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1999/299_asp.html

Molecule of the Month: Aspirin - from University of Bristol
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/aspirin/aspirin.htm

The Facts Of NSAIDs - Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - from About arthritis
http://arthritis.about.com/library/weekly/aa061097.htm

Which Pain Reliever Has a Faster Dissolution Time: Brand or Generic? - Student Investigation
Student Investigation

Simulated stomach - from ChemCenter - an experiment procedure for investigating the difference between regular, buffered, and enteric (coated) aspirin.
http://membership.acs.org/C/Chicago/ChmShort/CS05.html

Simulated Stomach Lab Sheet - observation recording sheet in .pdf file, from Science Net Links
http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/pdfs/acid2_actsheet.pdf

What is the buffer system in buffered aspirin? - from General Chemistry Online! FAQs about Acids & bases
http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/acidbase/faq/buffered-aspirin.shtml

Medicines By Design: The Biological Revolution in Pharmacology - from Healthier You, scroll down to Drug Delivery (Nasal Sprays, Drug Implants and Pill Pumps)
http://www.healthieryou.com/rxdrugs.html

Drug Delivery Methods - from Intensive Care Professionals, USA
http://www.icu-usa.com/tour/procedures/drug_delivery.htm

Drug Delivery Methods - from The University of Utah, Genetic Science Learning Center
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/addiction/drugs/delivery.cfm

DRUG DELIVERY - an article in Chemical and Engineering News
http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/8034/8034drugdelivery.html

Over-the-counter pain medications: Reading the labels - from Mayo Clinic
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/pain-medications/PN00061

Oral extended-release products - from the Australian Prescriber magazine
http://www.australianprescriber.com/magazine/22/4/88/90/


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Penicillin and other antibiotics

The Real Millenium Bugs: Immune to Antibiotics - from the Lab, ABC Science Online
http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/antibiotics/default.htm

Antibiotics: Antibacterial Agents from Kimball's Biology Pages
http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/A/Antibiotics.html

Introduction to Bacteria - from Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/bacteria.html

Introduction to Bacteria - from University of Missouri, St Louis
http://www.umsl.edu/~microbes/pdf/introductiontobacteria.pdf

The Rise of Antibiotic-Resistant Infections - from the Food and Drug Administration, USA
http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/795_antibio.html

On the Microbe Trail: An Introduction to Bacteria and Aseptic Technique - a lesson plan from Access Excellence
http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/AEF/1996/ziegenhirt_microbe.html

Bacterial Cell Structure - from Cells Alive
http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/bactcell.htm

Bacteria Divide and Multiply - from Cells Alive
http://www.cellsalive.com/ecoli.htm

Bacteria - Basics Facts - from Microbiology at Leichester University
http://www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk/MBChB/3a.html

Miracle Drugs vs. Superbugs: Preserving the Usefulness of Antibiotics - from the Food and Drug Administration, USA
http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1998/698_bugs.html

Penicillin: the first miracle drug - from Fun Facts About Fungi, University of Michigan Herbarium
http://herbarium.usu.edu/fungi/FunFacts/penicillin.htm

Florey Home Page - from Tall Poppy Campaign, Australian Institute of Political Science includes Production in the Past; How was penicillin first made?
http://www.tallpoppies.net.au/florey/

The History of Penicillin - from About.com
http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/Penicillin.htm

How Penicillin Kills Bacteria - a set of images and a movie from Cells Alive
http://www.cellsalive.com/pen.htm

What the Heck is Penicillin? - from Jack's "Bugs in the News", University of Kansas
http://people.ku.edu/~jbrown/penicillin.html

What the Heck is an Antibiotic? - from Jack's "Bugs in the News", University of Kansas
http://people.ku.edu/~jbrown/antibiotic.html

In Praise of Antibiotics - from American Society for Microbiology
http://newsarchive.asm.org/may99/feature6.asp

Antibiotics, Bacteria and (usually not) Viruses - from Dr. Reddy's Pediatric Office on the Web, includes the different types of antibiotics
http://www.drreddy.com/antibx.html

Antibiotics attack - an interactive tutorial from Biointerative, includes What are antibiotics? and Antibiotic resistance
http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/Antibiotics_Attack/frameset.html
also at
http://www.hhmi.org/grants/lectures/biointeractive/Antibiotics_Attack/frameset.html

Antibiotics: Too Much of a Good Thing? - from Health Headquarters at Access Excellence
http://www.accessexcellence.org/HHQ/HLC/HNA/

Home, Bacteria-Ridden Home: Could antibacterial soaps lead to resistant strains? - an Exploration from Scientific American
http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=0009078D-A418-1C76-9B81809EC588EF21&sc=I100322

Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics - from Microbiology Webbed Out, University of Wisconsin
http://textbookofbacteriology.net/resantimicrobial.html

Protecting the Crown Jewels of Medicine: A strategic plan to preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics - from the Center for Science in the Public Interest
http://www.cspinet.org/reports/abiotic.htm

When the antibiotics stop working... - from The Why Files?
http://whyfiles.org/038badbugs/

Dr. Collins and the Case of the Mysterious Infection - from The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University of Buffalo
http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/infection/infection.html


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Bacteria and disease

Development of the understanding of disease

1700 - 1900: The Miracle of Life and Death Appears Smaller ... and Smaller - a timeline with key events in science from Access Excellence
http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/BC/1750-1900.html

Handwashing - from Access Excellence
http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/hand_background.html

CHILDBED FEVER: A Nineteenth-Century Mystery - from The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, University of Buffalo
http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/childbed_fever.html

Case Teaching Notes for CHILDBED FEVER: A Nineteenth-Century Mystery - teaching notes to accompany the above case study
http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/childbed_fever_notes.html

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818 - 1865) - biography, from Stanford University School of Medicine
http://www.faqs.org/health/bios/24/Ignaz-Philipp-Semmelweis.html

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) - from Access Excellence
http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Louis_Pasteur.php

CHAPTER I: A BRIEF HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY - from Washington State University
http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/pages/Chap1.html

The Germ Theory of Disease - from Park University
http://captain.park.edu/bhoffman/courses/bi350/recap/germtheory.htm

Bacteria

The Microbial World - from The University of Edinburgh, good coloured images of types of bacteria
http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/microbes/shape.htm

Biological Diversity: Bactria and Archaeans - from the Online Biology Book, Estrella Mountain Community College
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_2.html


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